Which is better hydroponics or aquaponics
Can hydroponics and aquaponics replace traditional village-level agriculture where the soil is being eroded?
One of the possible options is aeroponics-based vertical farming. These systems use water mist and do not require a floor. The water requirement is lower than with hydroponics. Vertical farming can produce higher yields than other options if you can provide adequate light, nutrients and CO2.
Real world vertical farms use red and blue LED lights (can be a problem in your area) to increase production. The environments are closed and fully controlled to create optimal growing conditions and avoid contamination with pests. Much of the work is automated. These farms usually specialize in leafy vegetables, but can also be used for growing grain. Dwarf versions of plants are more suitable, but may be harder to come by.
I think livestock is not an option in your case. You can try raising rabbits, but any larger animal would use up too many resources, including water. Calorie production will also be too low to warrant spending. You may be better off using insects and bacteria as a source of protein.
As already mentioned, you can also farm tank fish. However, it might make more sense to set up fish farms near the ocean and grow sea fish as they don't require desalination. It might also be easier to feed this fish since you can grow its food in seawater. A coastal community could then specialize in growing and processing fish (canning, hardening, etc.) and exchanging it for other goods.
There is one caveat, however. Depending on the number of survivors and the level of automation before an apocalyptic event, high-tech agriculture simply cannot be sustainable. With current technologies, once you run out of parts, your system will stop working, even if you have enough power to power it and through people who are qualified to service it.
Unless you can start reindustrialization very quickly, your best bet would be to find out how to make food using low tech methods. It will be more sustainable in the long run.
To edit : To keep this in mind, there are many foods that can be grown in brackish water. You can breed all kinds of molluscs, grow kelp (seaweed), fish, and shrimp. There are also salt tolerant crops that can be grown for biofuels and food.
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