Start a tripod verb

the temple 131 the temple - site of the gods fig. 16. the terrace temple of Queen Hatshepsut (approx. 1489– 1467 BC) in luxor (theben-west, deir el-bahari) was used, among other things, for post-mortem care. 132 der Tempel 2-consonant sign 3-consonant sign tj «ti:» pestle Sps «schepes» noble man Hs «hes» water jug ​​wAD «wadsch» papyrus stem Hm «hem» bleuel Xnm «chenem» stone vessel with handle st / As «Set» / «as» headquarters Hwt «hut» large building; Logogram: Hw.t temple gm «gem» Sichler Htp «hetep» sacrificial mat Every temple of the gods in Egypt was inhabited by at least one deity. She could take shape in a valuable figure in the Holy of Holies, the innermost and best protected space behind the impregnable temple walls, strictly hidden from the eyes of the profane world. The Holy of Holies (or Sanctuary) was in the middle of the roofed temple house, beyond the open courtyards. This temple house is comparable to the private wings in houses, palaces and graves: Contrary to some other beliefs, a temple was only allowed to be entered by priests. The front area (the 1st courtyard) could have been made accessible to selected high-ranking personalities on certain occasions, but the temple house was taboo. An Egyptian temple was not a place for believers to come to pray, on the contrary: it was reserved only for the priesthood whose job it was to serve the deity. And this is how the priests understood their task, because they called themselves Hm-nTr "Servants of God". Their understanding of service did not go so far that they had to submit to celibacy, most of them were married and had children. Gods were subject to the same needs as humans: hygiene, food, worship (recognition) and diversion were offered to them in a daily ritual: in the morning a priest broke the seal of the divine shrine, opened the door, the temple woke the figure of the god, cleaned it, anointed her and dressed her. He offered her food, prayed, and made sure that music was played. In the evening he made the statue of the god ready for the night, closed the shrine and sealed it. At the end of an encounter with the figure of the god, the high priest retreated, crouching backwards, using a broom to smudge any footprints he might have made in the holy of holies so as not to leave any impurities. That was the Egyptian service for a god. In return, the deity made sure that the land flourished and prospered, the harvests were productive and the people were well provided for. This daily temple ritual was theoretically the task of the pharaoh as the highest cult lord of the country. Since he could of course not perform this service every day in the numerous temples of Egypt, there was a high priest in each shrine who took on this task and acted in the place of Pharaoh in the place of worship. He carried the Egyptian title or Hm-nTr tp.j «First Servant of God», stood in front of the temple and directed it. Only the Pharaoh or the high priest appointed by him were allowed to enter the Holy of Holies, see the divine figure and perform the daily ritual on it. For this purpose, the priests in general and the high priests in particular were subject to special hygiene regulations, which, in addition to repeated ritual and actual cleansing, also provided for shaving the whole body. A temple was referred to as Hw.t (“hut”) “temple”, more specifically as Hw.t-nTr (“hut-netscher”) “temple of God” or simply as the pr “house” of a deity. This understanding lives on in the religions of the world, in which churches, synagogues and mosques are referred to as “places of worship”. The everyday name for the great Amun temple at Karnak near today's Luxor was or pr-Jmn «House of Amun», even if the official name Jp.ts.wt («Ipet-sut») «Die (meaning the temple ) The place counts »read (or, for shorter 134, the temple was written, because every Egyptian who could write really knew this sanctuary). In addition, pr includes not only the building itself, but also its ownership of land. In addition to the temples of the gods, there were also temples for deceased kings, who had built them during their lifetime and were worshiped there by priests like a deity after their death. These are the royal temples of worship, which are better known today under the unfortunate term "mortuary temple". In Egyptian, however, they were called Hw.tn.t-HH.wm-rnp.wt ("hut-net-hehu-em-reneput") "Temple of millions of years", which once again expresses the Egyptians' idea of ​​eternity used. A royal temple of worship on the west bank of Thebes often had the addition m pr-Jmn next to its own name, which means something more freely translated "in the area of ​​the Amun temple". The Egyptian kings built or expanded the temples and made sure that their names were immortalized many times in the respective places of worship, on the one hand to be in connection with the deity, to document the benefits they had given the gods, and on the other hand to do so ultimately escaping being forgotten. Since the Middle Kingdom (approx. 2057–1795 BC) private individuals were also allowed to have statues of themselves set up in the temples of the gods (but not in the sanctuaries) in order to have an eternal share in the divine sacrifices and to take care of them to be. step 14 135 fifth lesson where the gods reside step 14: the weak are the traitors i: participles of the present (active and passive) The participles are a tricky topic, but I cannot save you from it. Knowledge of participles - at least rudimentary - is necessary in order to correctly interpret and translate some special forms of verbs in Egyptian texts. Here, too, you unfortunately have to get used to the fact that specific endings are not always to be expected and that a lot can be deduced from the context. Even the term “participle” is misleading, since a participle in German is used to accompany a verb (“eating he went across the street”; so-called adverbial usage), while Egyptian participles in German in the vast majority of cases Relative clauses must be reproduced («one who eats»). Egyptian participles are special forms of verbs that either define a noun more precisely like an adjective or appear as independent nouns themselves. A distinction is made between three time levels: present (progressive), past (perfect, step 15), and future (prospective, step 16). In each time stage, both active and passive, male and female forms as well as singular and plural are formed - so there are a total of 18 participle forms (of which, however, two forms have not yet been used in the future tense). With the participles of the present, the action has not yet been completed and they have the basic meaning "(one,) who does" (active) or "(one,) to whom is done" (passive). While a masculine ending is seldom found in strong verbs and the feminine forms usually have a .t, it is the variable verbs that give us the decisive clues about the presence of a present participle. The most important general rule is: The present participles (both active and passive) show a repetition of the last strong consonant (gemination) in weak verbs, while the past participles do not. Of course, as with every rule, there are certain, not always logical exceptions, but you will not come across these in most of the inscriptions for which I would like to train you here. In addition, the corresponding form can often be identified very easily from the content. active passive male female male female singular sDm. (w) / (. yy) mrr. (w) sDm.t mrr.t sDm. (w) mrr. (w) sDm.t mrr.t «(one,) the hears / loves "" (one,) who listens / loves "" (one,) who is heard / loved "" (one,) who is heard / loved "plural sDm. (w) / (. yyw) mrr (. w) sDm. (w) t mrr. (w) t sDm. (w) w mrr. (w) w sDm. (w) t mrr. (w) t «(many,) who hear / love» «( many,) who are heard / loved »As a rule of thumb for the present participles, it is best to remember: • Male forms of strong verbs rarely have an ending (most likely in passive plural), while the female forms usually have a .t be expected. • Weak verbs and those that already have the doubling of the second consonant in their basic form (mAA) show doubling (gemination). step 15 137 • The ending .w is sometimes characteristic of the passive participles of the present. Examples active: or DD «who gives»; (j) w (j) .w «they are coming»; jrr «the power»; mss.t «who gives birth»; mrr.w «they love». Examples passive: mrr.w «those who are loved»; gmm.t (from gm (j) [«gemi»] «to find») «which is found». Using the example of mrr.w, which can be both active ("who love") and passive ("who are loved") (not to mention the potential range of meanings of the strong verbs), you can see very well what I have already given you in one in the previous chapter as a "question of meaning": From the context of meaning, you will quickly see which form it can be. Step 15: the weak are the traitors ii: past participles (active and passive) The past participles describe an already completed and completed action and have the basic meaning "(one,) of the act" (active) or "(one, ) which was done »(passive). Here, too, the strong verbs are mostly endless, the feminine ones show a .t, and it is again the verbs with a weak last consonant that can serve as an indicator for these participles. In the passive forms these often form the double reed leaf .jj as an ending. Verbs that usually repeat their second consonant (mAA "see") do not do so in the active form: mA "(one,) who saw". 138 fifth lesson active passive male female male female singular sDm. (W) mr. (W) sDm.t mr.t sDm. (W) mr. (Yy) sDm. (W) t mr. (Yy) t «( one,) who heard / loved »« (one,) who heard / loved »« (one,) who heard / was loved »« (one,) who was heard / loved »plural sDm.w mr (.w) sDm .wt mr. (w) t sDm. (ww) mr. (yy) w sDm. (ww) t mr. (jjw) t «(many,) who heard / loved» «(many,) who heard / loved were »The following rules of thumb apply to past participles: • Sometimes an ending .w can appear in the masculine forms. • In the female forms there is usually an ending in .t. • There is no such thing as gemination; even verbs that repeat a consonant in their basic form do not do so in this form (there are occasional exceptions for a handful of verbs with two consonants). • The ending .jj is characteristic of the passive participles of the past in verbs that have a weak third consonant and in irregular verbs; however, the tendering of the double reed leaf is not a must for the writer. Especially if a closely related word follows, the ending is often omitted: "made by ..." is mostly jr (yy) n ... or jr. (Yy) .tn ... instead of jr.jj n ... or jr.jjt n ... ; the same applies to «born of ...»: ms (.jj) n ... / ms. (jj) t n ... instead of the corresponding forms with double reeds. Examples active: hAb «the sent one»; mA.w «he saw». Examples passive: gm.jjt «the / what was found»; hAb «who was sent». step 16 139 step 16: Actions in the future Participles of the future appear very rarely, but should not go unmentioned here. These express a not yet completed and completed, but desired, wanted and expected action. They have the basic meaning «(one,) who will do» (active) or «(one,) to whom will be done» (passive). In the passive voice there is so far no evidence for the feminine form and for the plural. This so-called sDm.tj = fj-form does not actually belong to the participles (which can already be seen from the clearly different appearance), but is treated and translated as such. We only find three different endings in total: .tj = fj (male active and passive), .tj = sj (female active) and .tj = sn (a plural active used for both sexes). It will hardly surprise you that it is very often possible to remain unwritten and that a spelling that is actually sDm.tj = fj etc. often becomes sDm.t (j) = f (j) etc. The weak verbs show neither gemination nor double reed leaf. active passive male female male female singular sDm.tj = fj mr (j) .tj = fj sDm.tj = sj mr (j) .tj = sj sDm.tj = fj mr (j) .tj = fj ––– « (one) who will hear / love »« (one) who will hear / love »« (one) who will be heard / loved »plural sDm.tj = sn mr.tj = sn –––« (many ,) who will hear / love »140 fifth lesson step 17: a relic from the old days: the tripod The tripod (also called pseudoparticiple or old perfective) is a form of the verb that does not exist in German. Apparently it is the relic of a very early and now lost language level. Later, its use was curtailed and the tripod was only used for a specific purpose. It usually expresses a state or a result and emphasizes the end result of an action. In German, the exact meaning cannot always be given adequately. As an example, I would like to introduce you to the word Htp ("hetep") "be satisfied": It consists of the symbol of the sacrificial mat on which there is a bowl of bread. Equipped with appropriate determinants such as another bread bowl and a vessel or an elongated loaf of bread and plural strokes, Htp becomes "sacrifice" and the relationship between them becomes clear: through sacrifice, a deity is satisfied. tripod verb ending variants transcription meaning (XY is [in the state that it is]… [is]) 1. Pers. Singular,,,, Htp.kwj I am (in the state that I am) satisfied 2nd pers. Singular, Htp.tj you are satisfied 3rd pers. Singular Ø Htp.w he is satisfied, Htp.tj she is satisfied 1st pers. Plural Htp.wjn we are satisfied step 17 141 2nd pers. Plural Htp.tjwnj you are satisfied 3rd pers. Plural Htp.w they are satisfied In the 2nd person singular no distinction was made between the masculine and feminine form. In the vast majority of cases, the mutable verbs show no changes. In the case of transitive verbs (which can be expanded with an accusative object), the tripod usually has a passive meaning - hAb.kwj («hab-kui») «I have been sent». It has become common in Egyptology to temporarily translate tripod constructions from transitive verbs with "... after ...": hAb.kwj would therefore read: "I was after I was sent". Intransitive verbs (without an object), on the other hand, are usually actively translated, with the help of “… by…”: The verb hA (j) “descend” would then mean hA (j) .kwj (“hai-kui”) “I was by descending »(« I descended »). Although such translations try to get as close as possible to the expression on the tripod, I have always found them to be a violation of the target language. Nevertheless, I am introducing them to you here, because if it should help you to identify the tripod - so much the better. But I would recommend that you do a "clean" sounding translation. As a makeshift paraphrase, I prefer in most cases “XY is (in the state that it)… is”, which becomes “XY is…” in the pure translation. The tripod can also be used in the 2nd and 3rd person to express a wish: nfr.tj («neferti») «you may be perfect» or «she may be perfect». Often you will come across the sequence of characters after the designation for the king and everything that is connected with him, where the abbreviation for wDA ("udscha") abbreviates "safe, unharmed" and for snb "be healthy" stands. It is also a tripod and is therefore read anx (.w), wDA (.w), snb (.w) - «may he live, be safe and healthy». Jmn-Htp (.w) ("Imen-hetep") is a stand shape and means "Amun is satisfied", in principle it is possible to recognize a wish in the statement - "May Amun be satisfied". It forms the main part in the sa-Ra names of four kings of the 18th dynasty (between about 1550 and 1315 BC), which are known today in the Greek version "Amenhotep". In contrast to participles ("(one,) who listens" etc.), the statements made through a tripod are sentences ("Amun is satisfied." "You may be perfect." "I have been sent.") .vocabulary substantive, Hw.t temple Hw.t-nTr God temple Hw.tn.t-HH.w-mrnp.wt worship temple,, Jp.ts.wt Karnak-Tempel, Hm servant Hm-nTr priest, Hm-nTr tp. j high priest, ns.t throne Sajj.t pastries (bread or cakes), Htp be satisfied; Peace, happiness, harmony, Htp sacrifice, Sps.t the noble, Xt body, body step 17 143 gods, Jmn-Ra Amun-Ra verbs gm (j) find hAb send, send, Xnm be close hA (j) descend adjectives, , sxm powerful, wAD green; fresh Sps edel wDA safe / unharmed exercises exercise 18. give the following expressions in transcription and translation: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (K. Sethe , Documents I, 122) Exercise 19. King's inscription from Theben (on Fig. 17) The inscription consists of two columns, which are crowned and protected by a heavenly vault with stars. The right column is the first to be read due to the direction of the writing. 144 Fifth Lesson Some Tips: The (n.j-) sw.t-bj.t (j) name is, note that it begins with a god's name; Horus and mistress names are identical: to read anx-msw.t. You only have to enter these two names in transcription and do not have to translate them. This name also consists of three elements, but these are a little veiled. The first four characters form the surname of a goddess that is not presented further, so they are to be read at the end. Start with the s written through the door latch, add a seated man as a sign and a line in your mind. Please take the n as an indirect genitive. Near the end of the first column is mr.jj, which you correctly understand as the passive participle of the past "who was loved". It is not to be expected that the named God no longer loves the king because the "act is over". It may be that the proof of love has already been provided in the past or that mr.jj is to be understood here as "who has (always) been loved". I recommend that you translate mr.jj as "darling" for temple texts that show this mr.jj between the king and a deity. For reasons of reverence, the name of God has been put in front of the surname in the typeface, but please read and translate “mr.jj surname + surname” (“Darling of…”). is another possible spelling for. Both columns are closed with the statement anx D.t, whereby anx here neither belongs to the series of "blessings". Try to think of it as an active present participle related to the king. You could also think of it as a tripod of desire in the 3rd person singular. Exercise 20. Temple inscription from sobek-em-sa-ef i. (to Fig. 18) A king with a white (Upper Egyptian) crown, collar, a bracelet and a short, sweeping apron with a bull's tail and a splendid apron hanger holds two egg-like gestures in front of him, which he offers to a deity. Behind his head there is a protective cobra (uraeus) wrapped around a sun symbol, around whose neck the eye of the anx sign is located. One does not read this symbol, it is the accompaniment of a solar deity who shows that the highest divine powers are behind the ruler, protect him and provide him with eternal life. A protective formula is affixed to the king's back. Please note here that HA is a preposition (see step 7) and that the Egyptian layouters have made changes at this point to ensure an aesthetic spelling in squares: nb belongs in the order after anx - so read and translate please sA anx nb HA = f. This column, like the line above the head, ends with the addition or (both times read mj Ra - «like Ra»). The king presents himself here with his two-part n (.j-) sw.t-bj.t (j) -name% xm-Ra WAD-xa.w «Mighty is Ra, fresh in appearance». Whether you want to understand the two victims in the “plot column” either as dual (Sajj.t [j]) or simply as two pieces (Sajj.t 2) is up to you - this does not change the meaning. Please edit the text in this order: (1) inscription above the king, (2) «story column», (3) column behind the back. Exercise 21. Hatshepsut temple inscription (on Fig. 19) You now have a scene in front of you in which Queen Hatshepsut (left) makes a sacrifice. She wears the so-called blue crown and a wide, short apron. In her left hand she holds an incense arm, at the end of which rests a vessel with a licking flame. With her right hand she throws pellets into the flames. Over 146 fifth lesson fig. 17th royal statute from the middle empire, 12th dynasty (around 1950 BC; luxor, Karnak temple, open air museum, chapelle blanche) step 17 147 You are your royal surnames and your SA-Ra name in a cartouche to read. Under her right hand is a column that explains in text what she is doing. The figure in front of her is interesting because the place of the action is known - it is the famous terrace temple of Hatshepsut in the valley of Deir el-Bahari on the west bank of the old city of Thebes, today's Luxor (Fig. 16). Standing in front of the pillars, facing the visitor, are statues of Hatshepsut, wrapped in a double crown, like a mummy, and with their zepabb. 18. temple inscription from sobek-emsa-ef i. (Second interim period, 17th dynasty, around 1650 BC; Luxor, Kar nak- tempel, open air museum) 148 Fifth lesson show tern in the arms crossed in front of the chest. In Egypt it was customary for statues to also have names. The figure pictured here is called MAa.t-kA-Ra Mr (j) .t-Jmn - that's what it says above her. MAa.t-kA-Ra ("Truth is the Ka-power of Ra") is Hatshepsut's (nj-) sw.t-bj.t (j) name, and since she sacrifices in front of her own statue, she sacrifices here so yourself! However, in order not to offer a target for a blasphemous act, the figure is reinterpreted as a reference to the locality in which the god Amun-Ra is also located. Hatshepsut will have talked himself out of the fact that she can be seen here at the sacrifice for the god Amun-Ra in her temple of worship in Deir el-Bahari, which the column under her arm also expresses textually. The presentation, however, speaks a completely different language! A word to read the king names that appear here: The sa-Ra name is in two parts and in our example is in a very shortened spelling - $ nm (.t) -Jmn @ At-Sps. (W) t «The Amun is close ”(Chenemet-Amun),“ The First of the Noble (Women) ”(Hat-schepesut). Note that the reed leaf is oriented differently in the divine name than the rest of the inscription. (1) Victims: (2) Action column: (3) Victim recipient: Please give the text of this inscription in transcription and translation and answer the following questions: (1) Why is the reed in the action column written against the direction of the writing? (2) What is the grammatical name of the between and? (3) What shape does it have? step 17 149 fig. 19. Hatshepsut temple inscription (approx. 1489–1467 BC, red chapel; luxor, Karnak temple, open-air museum) 150 sixth lesson second lesson when the gods speak The temple is the meeting place between man and God. In the reliefs, only the pharaoh, who had the building erected, comes into contact with the gods on behalf of his subjects and his empire. He usually sacrifices food that could please the god, because some of these are directly related to him (very clear in the exercise in Fig. 21). In return, he receives special immaterial gifts such as life or happiness and, indirectly, of course, the benevolence of the deity concerned, which can be expressed through lush Nile floods and good harvests and thus ultimately also has noticeable effects on people. 2-consonant sign 3-consonant sign mr «mer» channel stp «setep» Dächsel st / sT «set» / «setsch» cattle hide with arrow psD «pesedsch» moon with darkened half st / sT «set» / «setsch »Shoulder knot obH« qebeh »water jug ​​with leaking contents bH« beh »tusk aHa« aha »mast nxb« necheb »rush with shoots nxn« nechen »fortress; Logogram: Nxn (Hierakonpolis) step 18 151 4 consonant characters jpAt «ipat» domed building; Logogram: jpA.t (harem) wAst «waset» was-scepter with spring; Logogram: WAs.t (Thebes) step 18: what was, is and will be - time stages present and future If you have memorized the suffixes from step 4, the following will be easier for you, because the next two steps are based on these Suffixes on. So far you know that the suffix characters can be added to a noun to indicate ownership ("my house", "your house" etc.). The same signs are also added to verbs in order to conjugate them - for all persons, singular and plural, present and past. So you don't have to learn any new characters here, and the same rules apply to the transcription as to the suffixes on the noun - here, too, the "appendages" are separated from the word by an equal sign: sDm = f "he hears". present verb suffix variant transcription meaning 1st pers. Singular sDm = j I hear (said by a man) sDm = j I hear (said by a woman) 2nd pers. Singular sDm = k you hear (said to a man) 152 sixth lesson sDm = T = t you hear (said to a woman) 3rd pers. Singular sDm = f he hears sDm = s she hears 1st pers. Plural sDm = n we hear 2nd pers. Plural sDm = Tn = tn you hear 3rd pers. Plural sDm = sn they hear There are also the spelling variants created by detoning (can become and also be written). There are no abnormalities in the variable verbs, and the irregular rD (j) appears without r: or D (j) = f «he gives». Depending on the overall context of the text, the form sDm = f can in certain cases be given in German with a desired form, "he may hear". In addition to an unchanged form, the mutable verbs can also have a doubling of the last strong consonant if they are used as a noun: mrr = f "(the fact is that) he loves", jrr = f "(the fact is, that) he does ». Geminating verbs then show doubling, and the irregular rD (j) appears as respectively DD = f or dd = f «(the fact is that) he gives». You won't encounter these minifying shapes here, but it is good to keep in mind that they are there. In the Middle Egyptian language level in particular, there is another form of current action (the so-called «specific present tense»), which you will not come across in this book, but which should be mentioned for the sake of completeness. This is formed from the preposition Hr and the infinitive (step 12) of the corresponding verb: Hr sDm («while listening»). Since the formation here is not done with suffixes that are directly attached to the verb anstufe 18 153, these are either attached to a preceding particle (see step 21) - jw = f Hr sDm (literally: «he is listening», but please translate, clearly more melodious, simply «he hears») - or the perpetrator is a noun that is placed in front of the Hr-sDm form: s Hr sDm «the man hears». Since the verb is used in the infinitive in this construction, the weak verbs have a .t ending s Hr mr (j) .t "the man loves" (literally: "... is with love"). Past tense The past tense is quite easy to recognize: between the verb and the acting person (regardless of whether this occurs as a noun or as a suffix) there is an n, which is separated from the root of the word by a period: sDm.ns (« the man heard ») and sDm.n = f (« he heard »). With the variable verbs it should be noted that the geminating verbs do not have any doubling: mA.n = f («he saw»). The irregular rD (j) occurs both with the spelling of the r (, rD (j) .n = f) and without it (, D (j). N = f) - both times with the meaning «he gave» or . «He caused». present verb suffix variant transcription meaning 1st pers. Singular sDm.n = j I heard (said by a man) sDm.n = j I heard (said by a woman) 2nd pers. Singular sDm.n = k you heard (said to a man) sDm.n = T = t you heard (said to a woman) 154 sixth lesson 3rd pers. Singular sDm.n = f he heard sDm.n = s she heard 1st pers. Plural sDm.n = n we heard 2nd pers. Plural sDm.n = Tn = tn you heard 3rd pers. Plural sDm.n = sn they heard The n, which is so lost in the 2nd and 3rd person plural between the verb and the suffix, naturally seeks its most space-saving position in the word in written reality. Here, too, the suffix of the 1st person singular (and) does not necessarily have to be written. Step 19: "I hereby give you ...": a special feature in the speech of the gods The past tense formed with n is used, for example, in temple inscriptions in the literal speech of gods and kings and describes the scene that is represented graphically. Because, in the eyes of the Egyptians, a representation is something real that just happens at the moment of contemplation, there cannot be a past tense here. This peculiarity probably goes back to an age-old tradition in the spoken Egyptian language, which one did not just want to throw overboard. This “ritual sDm.n = f” in the literal speech - usually in the form of “D (j) .n (= j) n = k ..." or similar - is not used as an exception as "I gave you ..." or "I have given you ...", but translated as "herewith I give you ..." in order to express the simultaneity of action and literal speech. step 20 155 In temple scenes it is common for the king to sacrifice to a deity and the deity in return gives the king its benefits. The action of the Pharaoh is reproduced in the infinitive by an inscription near the sacrifice - without literal speech - (see Fig. 13). In these scenes, the deity explains personally what she is doing - verbatim. In the temple context, this is always introduced with the formula that I presented to you in its L notation in step 12, and consists of an action in the infinitive, the actor of which is introduced by the particle jn: Dd md.w jn XY «speaking of words through XY ». What follows is direct speech from XY. The usual abbreviated S notation of this formula looks like this and is pushed into one another in the column notations that are usual for these scenes (see Fig. 20). Since it was clear to the Egyptian what it meant, he could easily separate himself from the d of the dd and from the signs and plural strokes of the mdw staff. And you too will find that now that you know this abbreviation you will not miss the full spelling. If “speaking words through XY” sounds too cumbersome to you, just call the whole thing “XY speaks:‹… ›”. step 20: the relative clause, “from which applies…” The Egyptians were also able to form a relative clause with the so-called relative adjective ntj (“enti”). behaves like an adjective (see step 3) and matches the number and gender of the reference word it is behind. As a makeshift translation, one uses "from whom / to whom: ..." ("a man from whom: he has heard" applies), which in the target language is usually expressed as a simple relative clause ("a man who has heard" ). 156 sixth lesson relative adjectives male female singular, nt (j) nt (j) .t «from which applies:…» «from which applies:…» majority, nt (j) .w nt (jw) t «from which applies: … »« Of which the following applies:… »The forms are simple and easy to remember: Here, too, everything weak (and) is often omitted, and the written feminine form is therefore identical in the singular and plural, but spoken there may have been a difference, which it is necessary to represent in the transcription. Here is an example of the masculine plural form: r (m) T Km.t ntj.w jm Hna = f “the Egyptians who were there with him”, literally: “the people of Egypt, of whom the following applies: (they were) there together with him. " (Sinuhe, B33 f.) Vocabulary substantive abw lattich, s.t place, seat, throne, aHaw lifetime Htp.t sacrificial table mnw memorial, obHw cool water,, jp.t private rooms, harem; Abbreviation for the Luxor Temple, xrw voice mAa-xrw Justified; justified step 20 157 geography, Nbw.t Ombos MaHA Abu Simbel Nxb El-Kab Nxn Hierakonpolis WAs.t Waset (name of the 4th Upper Egyptian district) WAs.t Waset (Thebes, today Luxor), capital of the 4thUpper Egyptian Gaues MAdw Medamud BHd.t Edfu Jp.t-rsj.t Luxor Temple gods% wtX Seth, © Hw.tj Thot MnTw Month, Nb.t- Htp (.t) Nebet-hetepet,,% tt (% Tt ) Satet Nxb. (J) t Nechbet psD.t Divine Unity; Community of gods (of a temple), As.t Isis verbs s: mn let last; (Crown) put on,, HD light up; to be white (adjective) wnn (to be present) to exist HA (j) to complain, to select stp mAa true, just Xnm to unite with, to join; close jj (j) come 158 sixth lesson other Hr (.j) -jb located in the middle; the exercises in it exercise 22. the coronation ramses ’ii. in the temple of abu simbel (to fig. 20) Ramses II. (approx. 1302–1236 BC) is located between the gods Horus (@rw) and Seth (% wtX), each of whom stand on a pedestal to be taller than the king since they are crowning him. The pedestals can also be interpreted as statue bases, which indicate that this part of the ceremony took place in front of figures of gods. Both gods each hold a panicle of the year, on which a Sn ring and a tadpole (the symbol for 100,000) can be seen as symbols for countless years of reign. At this moment the king gets the double crown placed on his head, previously he wore a diadem. He holds his most important king's scepter, crook and frond, in his left hand, while his right remains in a reverent posture. A king's beard, collar, short, sweeping apron with a hanger and bull's tail and sandals are his “outfits” for the coronation celebrations. A solar deity shines above him with two cobra symbols in his back; you already have this symbol in the depiction of Sobek-em-sa-ef I. (see Fig. 18) - in a similar form, but around 400 years older - met. Both gods wear a scalloped bodice, collar, a tight-fitting apron with a bull's tail and no sandals. The double crown also sits on the head of Horus. Please give the inscriptions in transcription and translation in this order: (1) Ramses, (2) Seth, (3) Horus. step 20 159 I'll help you read the king's name, because it has some pitfalls. The name presents two statements, each of which has a god as its content: Amun and Ra. We start with the main name formed by Ra. You recognize a (even with a hyphen), an ms, supplemented by a sound, and a. Ra comes in front of the verb (when it comes to sentence structure, this has nothing to do with reasons of reverence!), Which emphasizes its role («Ra is someone who ...»). You now correctly suspect that, based on this introduction, the following ms (j) "give birth" must be a participle. Since ms (j) does not double the s in the present case (otherwise this would be identical to the verbal addition), it is reasonable to assume no present participle, and passive ("(one,) who was born") would be first here once does not make sense and, moreover, one would also desirably expect the double reed leaf, since ms (j) is a weak verb. So our translation up to this point is "Ra is one who gave birth". A king's name provides a statement about the king, and this must now come into play: This is representative of what would be abbreviated here. Now this part is complete: Ra-ms-s (w) «Ra is one who gave birth to him» or, better sounding: «Ra gave birth to him». The second part of the name should rather be seen as an addition to the first, as it does not form a complete sentence: Cartridges always had to be used in a particularly space-saving manner, because the aim was to accommodate as much content as possible in an extremely small space. This is why mr often replaces what you have known with this sound value up to now, because it could still be conveniently placed in the square of the Name of God and you could save a whole square in this way. So mr stands for mr (j) "love" and can be translated in the most uncomplicated way with mr (j) -Jmn ("loved by Amun"). 160 sixth lesson After the translation, please answer these questions about the text: (1) What is the form? How are the changes to the noun to be explained? (2) Which verb form is in? (3) What shape do you suspect in? fig. 20. the coronation ramses ’ii. in the temple of abu simbel (new empire, 19th dynasty, around 1300 BC) step 20 161 exercise 23. temple inscription from sobek-em-sa-ef i. (to Fig. 18) (Second Intermediate Period, 17th Dynasty, around 1650 BC, Karnak Temple, Open Air Museum, Luxor) We come back to Fig. 18, in which we are now concerned with the inscription of the deity take care: Now please edit the text of the invisible God. Here you will notice that Dd.t was used for «duration» instead of the often found Dd. In order to have the inscription as complete as possible, please add for the deity and include this in your transcription and translation. Month is an old, falcon-headed god of war of the Theban Gaues (4th Upper Egyptian Gau), in which he owned four important places of worship: in Medamud, Karnak, Armant and Et-Tod. The inscription starts right away with the literal speech of God. Exercise 24. Temple inscription from Thutmosis IV. (to fig. 21) King Thutmose IV can be seen here with an nms headscarf and Uraeus snake as well as a short, tight-fitting, pleated apron with a bull's tail. In front of him stands the god Amun-Ra in his appearance with an erect limb, which emphasizes his role as god of creation. The figure is now based on that of the god Min, who is shown exclusively with an erect limb, and Amun merges into Amun-Min. The angled arm is raised and the other is hidden behind the back (in some cases the hand of this arm also encloses the base of the penis) - which cannot be seen here because the relief on the right side is damaged. The “barter action” of the act of sacrifice (the king gives sacrifice and receives, for example, “life” from the deity) has already been presented in advance, because Amun-Min does not have a free hand to hand over his gift to the king. For this reason, fig. 21. thutmosis iV. (18th dynasty, approx. 1407–1398 BC) sacrifices - but to whom? and what? (Luxor, Karnak temple, open air museum) 162 sixth lesson the king can be seen, as usual, at the moment of the offering of the sacrifice and holds the “consideration” he has already received in his left hand. Lattich is sacrificed, I must also anticipate that here, because there is something special about the spelling. In this inscription there is actually a spelling mistake, which was caused by confusing two characters: In the "action column" the offering is meant abw "lattich", but the scribe accidentally wrote the similar looking aA instead of a, this is how the prescription came about. If you don't know the Egyptian word for lettuce and look up this incorrect spelling in the dictionary, you have a long search ahead of you. Lettuce is an offering that is often associated with the fertility god Min, because the white sap exuding from the plant reminded the Egyptians of male ejaculate. Thutmose is accompanied and protected here by the god Horus, who flies over him and to whom the reference in front of his left wing belongs. This group of characters occurs very often in royal inscriptions. You can tell from the city sign that it is a city or at least a locality. Based on the position in front of the wing one could assume that the god has the city of BHd.t (Edfu) as his destination. But this interpretation would make no sense: The god Horus is supposed to protect the king at this moment and forever - so why should a destination be specified? There is, however, another, much more evocative way of interpreting this statement, namely as a Nisbe adjective (see step 8): BHd.t (j) "who belongs to Edfu" - that is, "Horus von Behedet (Edfu)". Immediately below is the representation of Nechbet (Nxb.t), the crown goddess of Upper Egypt, who sits on a nb hieroglyph and faces the king and his titulature. The plant below is a lily bush, the lily is the heraldic plant of Upper Egypt and is synonymous with it. Simply read this ^ maw «Upper Egypt» and bring it into connection with Nechbet (the step 20 163 164 sixth lesson nb symbol will help you with this). The goddess gives the name of the king - and thus himself - a Sn ring, a protective symbol. The names of the kings are briefly discussed here before you begin: The sA-Ra name is and presents you with the ibis, the god Thoth (see Fig. 3), Egyptian © Hw.tj. Here, too, the name consists of two content-related statements, the first is © Hw.tj-ms (j.w), whereby ms is to be understood as a tripod («Thoth is born»). In our case, only a fraction of the second part is given with xaw, because other spellings give the full form of the name: xa (j) xaw ("The appearance appears" or similar). The (n.j-) sw.t-bj.t (j) name, on the other hand, is clear in its statement: Mn-xpr.w- Ra «The figure of Ra is permanent». The name above God can still be recognized - everything else has been destroyed. Begin the translation of the leftmost column (wnn n (.j-) sw.t © Hw.tj-ms (jw) ...) with "King Thutmose exists (as one) who ...", understand it as a participle and try everything that can be (the indirect genitive is ruled out). You shouldn't have any problems with anything else. Please proceed in this order: (1) Horus inscription, (2) text below the Horus inscription, (3) text above the king, (4) text behind the king, (5) text above the god, ( 6) «Action column». Exercise 25. “ohrenstele” (to fig. 22) We do this exercise together again: to come into contact with the gods was originally one of the main tasks of the king in his function as supreme cult lord of the empire. Gradually, however, private individuals also came into contact with gods and took 20 165 figs. 22. the ears on this stele should ensure that the divine addressee really "hears" the request of the secular sender (19th dynasty, around 1200 BC; probably from the workers' settlement deir el-medina near luxor). 166 sixth lesson asked especially for entry into the realm of the dead or help in emergency situations. Presumably this stele that you now have was found in the workers' settlement Deir el-Medina near Luxor. It belongs to the group of so-called ear steles, which come from a private environment and often call on a deity directly. The conspicuously elaborated ears are intended to ensure that the called entity hears quite definitely and ultimately a dialogue will result (two pairs of ears!). It should be noted here that sDm has been supplemented with the “half” m instead of the owl m and that some omissions and shifts can be found: Between the two pairs of ears we read the name of a goddess and two of her epithets:. The name of the goddess Nb-Htp.t was written without the .t ending, which is more common and in no way affects the meaning of the name (“Mistress of the Sacrifice” or “Mistress of the Sacrificial Table”). The word is the twisting of a verb that looks like this in the L-spelling: HA (j) «complain». Why the swap was made remains a mystery, especially since it literally counteracts the formation of a square. or better HA (j) .t is to be understood as the infinitive of the weak verb HA (j) - «the complaint». The sDm before is (endlessly) related to the goddess ("she hears"), which is why we add a .t in brackets to the transcription at this point. The final nb.t p.t ("Mistress of Heaven") in an S spelling of the noun p.t should no longer be a problem worth mentioning in this lesson. The column in the transcription reads Nb.t-Htp (.t) sDm (.t) HA (j) .t nb.tp.t "Nebet-hetepet, who hears the complaint, Lady of Heaven" and represents the addressee of the stele. In the line below, the founder reveals his identity:. The personal name Wsr-% t.t is formed from the name of the goddess Satet, who belonged to the cataract area south of Elephantine. The adjective precedes it unmistakably, so that the meaning "Strong is Satet" results. 1 c st ti step 20 167 Even if it would fit thematically well into this lesson, there is no conjugated past tense in the form of an sDm.n = f. Theoretically it would be possible (and would not distort the meaning of the statement) here jr (j) .n Wsr-% tt «User-Satet made (es - the stele)», but there is that dreaded form of the past participle in which the weak verbs jr (j) and ms (j) omit the double reed leaf ending if the direct connection by n + offender follows «from XY». Therefore jr (.jj) n Wsr-% t.t can be read here - «made by User-Satet». As you have seen, a man named User-Satet was the founder of this ear stele for the goddess Nebet-hetepet. We don't know anything about User-Satet - he doesn't reveal any titles, affiliations or other information. Yes, not even a request that he has of the goddess, he formulates. But the fact that the goddess was explicitly addressed by him as sDm (.t) HA (j) .t, as the one “who hears the complaining”, suggests that it was not a pleasant reason why he turned to Nebet-hetepet turned. The stele served as a material underpinning of User-Satet's requests for the abolition or alleviation of a sad circumstance. The carved ears make clear the urgency that his prayers may be heard, so this monument is not to be understood as a gift of thanks to the goddess for overcoming a difficulty, but as a sign of a current emergency. User-Satet either commissioned the stele or perhaps even made it themselves. This means that he has taken a financial or time investment to create this object. The person called is not one of the major main gods of the empire and apparently only enjoyed a relatively modest veneration in the greater Heliopolis area - although she was involved in the circle of the creation gods. It was hardly known in Thebes, where the piece was probably found. User-Satet would probably be a man from Heliopolis, who was perhaps born at the time of the onset of the Nile flood, which, from an Egyptian point of view, began in the cataract area, to which his name could refer, and who lived, worked and apparently suffered or unhappy in Thebes was. You can see how even completely unspectacular pieces suddenly begin to talk and radiate a fascination that you cannot help but - if you understand the message and ask the right questions. Exercise 26. Inscription on the statue of Queen Isis (on Fig. 23) The present inscription is on the throne of a seated figure of Queen Isis. The original is made of black granite and has not survived from the navel upwards. The fragment is 62.5 cm high and the text before you is the only inscription. It is attached to the front of the throne, and both columns flank the queen's lower legs. The characters reveal interesting details about the person portrayed as well as about the piece itself, which one would never have been able to find out without knowing the script - apart from the name. The cartridge names are Mn-xpr-Ra, the n (.j-) sw.t-bj.t (j) name of Thutmose III. (approx. 1489–1435 BC), and As.t, Queen Isis, owner of the statue. The queen's name reads As, and the egg can act as a determinant for the goddess (of the same name) Isis. When you think of the m, think of its special use as a «wheeled m». You should memorize the character group mAa-xrw well, because you will come across them frequently. It is made up of mAa «true» and xrw «voice» - «true to voice», the opposite of a liar. This predicate was given to a person who had died and who had undergone the so-called negative confession of sin and the subsequent weighing of hearts in the court hall of the god of the dead Osiris. In doing so, she first named the 42 canonical sins and asserted that she had not committed them. In order to check the veracity of this statement, her heart, which according to Egyptian understanding had the tasks and functions of the brain, was usually weighed against an ostrich feather, the symbol of the goddess Maat, who was responsible for truth and justice. If the person concerned had spoken the truth and was actually free from sin, then their heart was - symbolically - either as heavy or even lighter than a pen, and the person tested could, as someone who was "true in voice", move into the Egyptian paradise. The term mAa-xrw is often rendered in German with “der / die Gerechtigtigte” or simply “justified”. You have the text of a statue fragment in front of you, which makes a really moving and poignant statement: The great Pharaoh Thutmose III. donated this figure to his beloved, deceased mother in the Luxor Temple so that she could partake of God's sacrifices there forever. When editing, please start with the left column.For the German translation it is necessary that you add an "es" in the right column that refers to the statue - you will surely notice where this has to be done. Make a transcription and translation and then please answer the following questions: (1) What construction is in? (2) What is the meaning here? (3) What is the time stage of the verb? Exercise 27. Temple inscription from Sesostris i. (on fig. 24) This practical exercise offers you a more extensive inscription in which you can apply much of what you have learned so far. In general, you see a king (left) sacrificing before a deity - which parts of the title does the ruler use? What is he sacrificing? Who is his counterpart? And what does it do Does he speak? What does he say? The structure of the display is as follows: The top line under step 20 169 170 sixth lesson fig. 23. inscription on the statue of queen isis (around 1450 BC, 18th dynasty, luxor museum) step 20 171 fig. 24. Temple inscription from Sesostris I. (12th dynasty; around 1950 BC, Luxor, Karnak temple, open air museum, chapelle blanche) 172 Sixth lesson on the starry sky refers to the vulture-shaped crown goddess Nechbet directly below, who flies over the king and protects him. What is she holding in her clutches? The main text consists of four columns - the two columns on the left introduce you to the King, the two columns on the right give you details about the deity. Under the middle two columns is a single line that explains what the god is doing. The crack just above the king's elbow reveals his story. Please remember to prefix certain terms out of awe and the possible omission of the suffix of the 1st person singular. In the first column of gods this refers to, and. The vulture-shaped goddess Nechbet is an Upper Egyptian crown goddess and in this role she is responsible for the white crown of the pharaohs. This earned her the nickname HD.t-Nxn «the white of Hierakonpolis». It is located in Nxb (El-Kab) on the eastern bank of the Nile, but Nxn (Hierakonpolis) is the immediate neighboring city on the opposite bank and is therefore also part of its area of ​​responsibility. Aw.t-a "who stretches out her arm" is another nickname of the Nechbet and is probably based on the impressive wingspan of vultures. It is interesting that the name of the goddess refers to her city and is a Nisbe derivation from it: Nxb.t or more precisely: Nxb. (J) t is "that belonging to Necheb". Please proceed in this order: (1) Nechbet, (2 a and b) King, (3) “Action column”, (4 a and b) God; please add the suffix of the 1st person singular (= j) after D (j) .n, sA, X.t and mr.jj, (5) line in front of the god.