How does the analysis relate to creativity?
In economic sociology: creative or creative thinking, general term for the ability to produce new and original problem solutions. The prerequisite for this is the ability to give up old habits of thinking, perspectives etc. and to be able to create new, surprising connections, to find new relationships between given data etc.
Targeted ability of people to come up with previously unknown compositions, products or problem-solving ideas. Aspects from other areas can be accumulated, known elements can be combined with unknown elements, or completely new patterns can be devised. Creativity does not necessarily have to result in concrete action. The cognitive goals of creativity research are the creative personality, the promotion of creative abilities, framework conditions that promote creativity, the result of creative work and the creative process. Various creativity techniques are used to promote creativity. / S. H. Creativity Techniques Methodical techniques and procedures in the search for problem solutions in poorly structured problem situations, which therefore cannot be solved with routine and logic, since not all solution elements are known or available and in particular regularities are not available or difficult to recognize. There are many alternative, non-mutually exclusive options. The search is based on certain rules of the game that are intuitive or systematic in character and are partly holistic and partly analytical. The solutions found cannot be proven mathematically as optimum. Particularly widespread techniques are morphology, problem area analysis, the relevance tree method, brainstorming, the 635 method and synectics.
Literature: Schlicksupp, H., brainstorming, Würzburg 1980.
The ability to develop unusual ideas, to produce new ideas and to deviate from conventional ways of thinking and thought patterns, to show originality in viewing and using contexts. “Creativity is the human ability to produce any kind of thought process that is essentially new and previously unknown to the person who produced it. It can be an imagination or a thought synthesis that is more than a mere summary. Creativity can involve the formation of new systems and new combinations of unknown information as well as the transfer of known relationships to new situations and the formation of new correlates. Creativity has to be intentional and purposeful, not useless and fantastic. " (Gisela Ulmann)
J. Drevdahl defines: “Creativity is the ability of people to produce compositions, products or ideas of any kind, which are fundamentally new and were previously unknown to the creator. It can consist in imaginary thinking or in the putting together of thoughts, whereby the result is more than a mere summation of what is already known. Creativity can include the creation of new patterns and combinations of empirical knowledge and the transfer of known contexts to new situations as well as the discovery of new relationships. The creative result must be useful and purposeful and must not be pure fantasy - although it does not necessarily need to be put into practice immediately or be perfect and complete. It can relate to any form of artistic or scientific creation or be of a process or methodological nature. "
The focus of psychological creativity research is the analysis of the creative personality and the creative process, while the focus of management theory and practice is on promoting creativity, the development of - creativity techniques and their use for commercial processes of product development and invention as well as introduction of - innovations stands.
The ability to behave creatively or to be able to create creative processes is essentially based on three elementary components:
(1) The available knowledge: An essential characteristic of creative processes is the reorganization of already known elements of knowledge. The more diverse and comprehensive an individual's knowledge, the greater and more original is the number of mental connections that he can establish.
(2) Mechanisms of knowledge processing: These include the thought principles, methods and degrees of freedom of thought used, e.g. diversity of aspects when considering phenomena, forming judgments, decomposing complexities, willingness to associate, thinking in analogies, etc.
(3) Psychodynamic driving forces: This component is of central importance because of its triggering functions. The psychodynamic driving forces have their essential roots in the creative person himself (e.g. curiosity behavior, desire for self-realization, willingness to empathize and identify, spectrum of needs, etc.), but they interact with external influences such as role assignment, recognition, responsibility, socially effective repression, joy - and experiences of suffering, etc. Creativity development can therefore only take place in isolation on the individual to a limited extent, but also affects the design of the environmental areas with which the individual is related.
The most important cognitive goals of psychological creativity research include investigations of the creative personality, the promotion of creative abilities, the results of creative work and the creative process.
The assumptions of psychology on the question of whether it is personality traits that favor creative achievements vary between the extremes of the hypothesis from innate genius to the hypothesis that only a favorable interplay of various biographical coincidences induces creativity.
Basically, there are at least two ways to recognize creative personalities:
(1) Certain characteristics, properties and attitudes of creative personalities can be isolated. The characteristics of creative people are mostly derived from thought and personality theories or from observations or surveys about significant differences between creative and uncreative people. The assumption that someone is highly creative is usually assumed for people who have achieved excellent, generally recognized achievements (e.g. a large number of issued patents), while people in a comparison group only achieved below-average or average results.
A summary of personality traits that have been found typical for creative people in empirical studies comes from G. Ulmann. According to this, the following features are characteristic of creative people: an open and critical attitude towards the environment, the detachment from conventional and traditional views, preference for new things, the ability to see one's own field of perception from different aspects, the ability to resolve conflicts arising from perceptions and actions to be able to endure, a preference for complex situations and ambiguous stimuli, the ability to work persistently on a solution, the focus on the solution of a task, not on gaining fame and recognition, the inclination to be energetic, proactive, motivated to succeed, courageous , autonomous, socially introverted, self-sufficient, emotional stability, dominance, a certain tendency to aggressiveness, a high sense of responsibility, aesthetic sense, less pronounced social and religious beliefs, sensual and differentiated reactions to the environment, humor
(2) One can directly measure the creativity developed in certain situations or under certain requirements. In most cases, factor analysis is used. There are various approaches to break down the global ability “intellect” into definable factors, the individual strengths of which are measured on the test subject using suitable methods.
The theoretical model developed by Joy P. Guilford, which alone distinguishes 120 intelligence factors, is of great importance. Each factor is built up from the combination of a thinking operation, a thinking product and a thinking content and represents a problem that an individual is able to solve better or worse. A test item can therefore be designed for each factor, which represents its intellectual requirement. The summary of the corresponding tests results in a test battery with which individual intelligence or creativity quotients are determined. When determining the individual values, an empirically determined average is used as a relative measure of creativity:
A creativity quotient (KQ) of 130 means that the test subject's test results are 30% above average, a KQ of 100 corresponds to average creativity, etc.
Most authors agree that following H. Poincare, the creativity process is described as a sequence of the following stages:
(1) Preparatory phase: the phase of gradually developing an awareness of the existence of a problem, its discovery and formulation and its analysis. The preparatory phase begins with the recognition or awareness of a problem and continues with the analysis of the problematic factual situation. The individual tries to make essential, related aes vroolems transparent to himself, activates his possibly problem-relevant knowledge and tries to process this knowledge flexibly into an answer to the problem.
(2) Incubation phase: The phase of formulating the first hypotheses and approaches to solving the problem. The incubation phase lies between the establishment of the first hypotheses and the finding of the final solution. It is believed that subconscious thought processes play a significant role during the incubation phase. In these processes, problem-related material is connected with other empirical material and combined into many constellations, one or the other of which can contain a solution to the problem or a further answer in the direction of the solution. The incubation period can be interpreted as “subconscious problem processing”, which takes place even when the individual is consciously dealing with other issues.
(3) Illumination phase: The phase in which the enlightening idea for the solution of the problem develops and the realization of the solution thereby becomes within reach. Enlightenment is the sudden, sudden consciousness of an idea, the flash of inspiration as the result of subconscious thinking.
(4) Verification phase: The finally developed idea is checked against the criteria of novelty, feasibility and usefulness, whether it also does justice to the circumstances and requirements of the problem situation. If it passes the test, then comes the - innovation.
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