What are the origins of Mauryan

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Chandragupta Maurya> Origin and History


Indian Emperor Chandragupta Maurya lived from 340-298 BC. And was the first ruler of the Mauryan Empire. He ruled from 322-298 BC. Chr .; He was the father of Emperor Bindusara and grandfather of Emperor Ashoka, who was the third Mauryan ruler and under whose reign the Mauryan Empire reached its full potential and became the largest empire ever in the Indian subcontinent and one of the world's largest empires at that time.
Before the time of Chandragupta, India consisted mostly of a number of small independent states, with the exception of the Magadha Kingdom, an empire controlled most of northern India that was ruled by the Nanda dynasty. Chandragupta began a process that would unify India for the first time in history.

The Liberation of India

In 326 BCE, while fighting his way to India, Alexander the Great pushed the army of King Porus, the ruler of the local state of Paurava, located in what is now Punjab. After the fight for his last breath, King Porus surrendered to Alexander, who was impressed by the courage and stature of his opponent. Alexander made Porus his allies and made him king of all conquered India as a Macedonian tributary. Shortly afterwards Alexander's army refused to go further to Asia. his men mutinied and with it the Macedonian army returned and left India.
Chandragupta's courage, coupled with Kautilya Chanakya's intelligence, transformed the Mauryan Empire into one of the most powerful governments of the time.
Chandragupta was a noble member of the Kshatriya caste (warrior-ruler caste) and the main proponent of removing all fragments of the Macedonian influence form India. He was referring to the Nanda family, but he was an exile. Ironically enough, Chandragupta was a refugee in Alexander the Great's camp during the period of exile, and it is possible that he met Alexander the great in person.
With the help of his shrewd chief adviser and future Prime Minister Kautilya Chanakya, Chandragupta raised a small army. The military strength lacking by Chandragupta's force was offset by the shrewd strategies used by Kautilya Chanakya. Chandragupta entered the capital of the Magadha Kingdom, Pataliputra, where he sparked a civil war with Kautilya Chanakya's intelligence network. 322 BC He finally seized the throne of the Nanda dynasty, and he founded the Mauryan dynasty, which ruled India until 185 BC. Would rule. After this victory Chandragupta and defeated Alexander's generals in Gandhara, now in Afghanistan. Following these successful campaigns, Chandragupta was seen as a courageous trailblazer who defeated part of the Greek invaders and ended the corrupt government of Nanda, thereby gaining widespread public support.
Chandragupta's courage, coupled with Kautilya Chanakya's intelligence, soon made the Mauryan Empire one of the most powerful governments at the time. Pataliputra remained the imperial capital, and the first area controlled by Chandragupta extended all of northern India from the Indus River, in the west, to the Bay of Bengal in the east.
After the death of Alexander the great in 323 BC The eastern German territories, controlled by the Macedonians, fell into the hands of General Seleucus, including the region of Punjab, which is now part of northern India and eastern Pakistan. Seleucus was busy enough with what had happened on the western border, so Chandragupta saw a tempting opportunity and launched an attack on Seleucus and captured much of what is now Pakistan and Afghanistan. 305 BC Chandragupta signed a treaty with Seleucus in the rulers established borders of both the Punjab, Chandragupta received in return for 500 war elephants.

The Chandragupta Government & Imperial Expansion

During the reign of Chandragupta we find the Greek Magasthenes, ambassador of Seleucus, in the court of Pataliputra from 317-312 BC. Lived. He wrote many different reports on India and although his original work is lost we can piece together some information found in later works. He reports that the Indians:
[...] Never drink wine except at sacrifice [...] The simplicity of their laws and their contracts is evidenced by the fact that they seldom go into law. They do not complain of pledges and deposits, nor do they require either seals or witnesses, but instead make their deposits and trust each other.
(Durant, 441)
Magasthenes also reports that Pataliputra was nine miles in length and about two miles in width. Chandragupta palace was full of luxury and all kinds of pompous possessions. In his palace Chandragupta pays the price of rising to power through the use of force: he lived in it for 24 years, almost like a hermit, with very limited exposure of the population, solely for the growth of the empire. He managed to extend his empire westward and became the master of all northern India. According to the reports of Magasthenes, Chandragupta's army was composed of 600,000 foot soldiers, 30,000 horses and 9,000 war elephants.
After becoming the master of all of northern India, Chandragupta began a campaign to conquer the southern half of the Indian subcontinent. Battle, after the battle, the Mauryan forces absorbed most of the independent Indian forces until finally in 300 BC. BC, the borders of the Mauryan Empire extended southward into the Deccan Plateau. Chandragupta, however, failed to annex the small kingdom of Kalinga in the presence of Odisha in central-eastern India, on the Bay of Bengal. The outstanding conquest would be 260 BC. To be completed by Emperor Ashoka.

Abdication and death

298 BC Chandragupta voluntarily abdicated the throne in favor of his son Bindusara, who became the new Mauryan emperor. We know what after this point seems closer to legend than an actual historical representation. It is said that Chandragupta converted to an ascetic and follower of Jainism. Jain tradition claims that Chandragupta migrated south and, in accordance with the beliefs of Jainism, he starved himself in a cave. This event allegedly took place in Sravana Belgola, a city about 150 kilometers away from Bangalore, one of the most important pilgrimage sites in Jainism.
Article contributed by the team of staff.