Are there copper heads in Maryland?

Abolitionists

The word is derived from "to abolish". It means political and humanitarian groups in the northern states that have pushed for the immediate abolition of slavery in the south without compensation.

Amendment

see constitutional clause

Ante Bellum

(Latin: before the war)

Name for the pre-war era, mainly in the southern states.

Special facility

(Peculiar Institution)

Commonly used in the south for negro slavery.

Civil war

(Civil War)

There was and is a whole series of names for the great conflict between Northern and Southern states, of which "Civil War" is by far the most common list in the United States today. If the connection is not clear, "American" must of course be added to avoid confusion with other civil wars. In the south, people prefer to speak of the "war between the states". This word creation emphasizes the separation of the parts of the country, while the term "civil war" suggests a conflict within one and the same state. In the decades after the war, people in the north preferred the name "War of Rebellion", "War of Rebellion", a designation that disparaged the Confederates and is rarely used today. "Civil War" is a term that is used almost exclusively in Europe. It is quite precise and also neutral.

Carpetbaggers

(People with carpet bags)

This was the name given to northerners who came to the defeated south after the civil war. It was generally assumed that they wanted to enrich themselves in the chaos of the reconstruction. The "carpetbagger" arrived with nothing but a travel bag made of carpet and quickly made wealth through fraud and exploitation, at least that is the common perception in the south.CavalierIn the English Civil War (1642 - 1646) the supporters of the royal aristocratic party in the fight against the Puritans Cromwell's were called "Cavaliers". In the assumption - only really true in very few cases - that many of the first settlers in Virginia, Maryland and the Carolinas were escaped or exiled "Cavaliers", the term was often applied to the plantation aristocracy of the Old South.

Copperheads

(Copper heads, a poisonous snake species)

Name for the "peace democrats" in the northern states who advocated a mutual agreement and opposed Lincoln's war policy. They were considered traitors by the Republicans.

Dixie

(Short for "Dixie's Land" or "Dixie Land")

Popular name for the southern states. The origin of the word is disputed. The greatest probability is likely to have the explanation according to which the word would come from the "Mason-and-Dixon-Line" (s.d.). The name became popular mainly through Dan Emmett's song "Dixie", which was given the character of a Confederate national anthem during the Civil War.

Fire eater

(Fire Eaters)

Name for the militant defenders of slavery and the rights of the states in the south. The "fire eater" was the extremist antithesis to the "abolitionist" in the north.

Greenbacks

(Green back)

Name for the paper dollar bill issued by the Union from 1862 that was not backed by gold and caused considerable inflation.FrontierThe western border of the USA to the "wild" Indian area, at the same time the border between European-influenced civilization and largely undeveloped nature. The border, which moved steadily to the west from the 17th to the end of the 19th century, with its archaic living conditions, its unlimited freedom and its seemingly inexhaustible possibilities, shaped the attitude towards life of a nation that pursued its "apparent purpose" with the conquest of the west.

Border states

(Border States)

The northern fringes of the south: Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri. They had slavery and so belonged to the southern states, but the contrast to the north was less sharp here than in the states of the "Solid South", especially those of the "deep south" (South Carolina, Georgia and the Gulf States). Politically, they often played a mediating role. During the Civil War they did not join the secession, although there were counter-Confederate governments in Missouri and Kentucky and Maryland had initially only been kept in the Union by military force.

Impeachment

(Objection, indictment)

The US Constitution provides for treason, bribery, or other serious crimes and misdemeanors to be indicted by the Senate against the president or vice-presidents of other government officials or officials. A two-thirds majority of the senators present is required for conviction and removal from office.Jim CrowStanding figure in the "minstrel shows" (s.d.), often applied to all blacks from the south. The name became a household name when, at the end of the 19th century, segregation laws were introduced in the various southern states, known as the Jim Crow Laws. "Jim Crow" became a synonym for the discrimination against black people in schools, bars and public transport.

confederacy

(Confederacy, short for Confederate States of America, abbreviated CSA)

State name given to themselves in the spring of 1861 by the southern states of South Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, Florida, Lousiana and Texas, which had left the Union. After the outbreak of war, Virginia (splitting off from West Virginia), Tennessee and Arkansas joined the Southern Confederation.Ku Klux KlanSecret society in the southern states that, in the decade after the civil war, fought with terror against the imposed republican state government and the efforts to achieve political equality for blacks. He was largely recruited from former Confederate soldiers. The name is composed of the Greek Kucloz (circle) and the Scottish "clan", the latter written with "K" because of the alliteration. The Klan disappeared at the end of the reconstruction era in the south, but was re-established in the early 20th century, but this time as an association not specifically restricted to the south, the not only racist, but also anti-Semitic, anti-Catholic, xenophobic and union-hostile thrusts owned.Mason and Dixon LineMaryland State's northern boundary, named after the two English surveyors, Mason and Dixon, who drew it in 1750. It became synonymous with the borderline between northern and southern states.Minstrel ShowThe term "minstrels", which goes back to the Middle Ages and refers to folk and ballad singers, was given in the first half of the 19th century by various groups who, disguised as blacks and wearing make-up, performed in public and performed songs and dances based on the blacks of the south. The "Black Minstrel Shows" were very popular; Stephen Foster, Dan Emmett, and other well-known composers write songs for these groups. "Oh! Susanna", "My Old Kentucky Home", "The Yellow Rose of Texas" and "Dixie" were originally "Minstrel Songs".

Nativism

(Nativism)

The word derives from "native" - ​​"native". It is used to describe xenophobic movements that want to preserve North America for whites of Anglo-Saxon origin and Protestant denomination ("WASP" - "Whiete Anglo-Saxon Protestant"). (see also "ignorant" and "Ku Klux Klan")New England statesThe northeastern United States, dominated by Puritan immigrants: Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire, Vermont, and Maine.

Declaration of invalidity

(Nullification)

According to the doctrine of state rights, each state had the right to null and void any central government law in its territory.

Ignoramus

(Know-notings)

Popular name for the "American Party", which was formed in the 50s of the 19th century from various secret societies, whose members only gave the following information when asked: "I don't know anything!" It was a nationalist, xenophobic and above all anti-Catholic movement. It broke up after a few years over the question of slavery.

radical

(Radicals)

Name for the radical wing of the Republican Party. During and after the war, the radicals advocated a ruthless policy towards white southerners and full equality for freed slaves.

Raid

(Raid)

Standing expression, also adopted in other languages, for deep, temporary advances by mobile troops, which are undertaken deep into the enemy hinterland, regardless of their own connections to the rear, in order to gather information, cause material damage and spread insecurity. The cavalry of both sides undertook a series of spectacular raids during the civil war, which also caused a sensation in Europe.

Rebels

(Rebels, Rebs)

The common expression in the north for the Confederates, as the north considered secession unconstitutional and therefore called the southerners' struggle for independence a rebellion. In soldiers' jargon it often became "Rebs" or "Jonny Rebs", also "Jonnies".

reconstruction

(Reconstruction)

Solid expression for the post-war period, especially in the southern states. Reconstruction is started with the end of the civil war in 1865 and ends with the withdrawal of the last occupation troops in spring 1877.reservationArea that was assigned as habitat to one or more Indian tribes after the conquest of land by the whites.

Red neck

(Rednecks)

Especially in the 20th century a common term for the small farmers and other lower classes of the south.

Scalawag

(Good-for-nothing, cripple)

In the south, during the reconstruction, a contemptuous expression for a collaborator, i.e. a white southerner who worked with the Republican "carpet excavator" governments.secessionThe word comes from "to secede" - to separate yourself. According to the doctrine of constitutional rights, any federal state could break away from the union. The secession of part of the southern states after the election of 1860 led to the secession crisis and the civil war, which is therefore often referred to as the civil war in Europe. After the secession, the supporters of the southern states were also known as "seceshs".SeceshsAcronym for "secessionist", a common name for the supporters of the Confederation.

State rights

(States Rights)

The doctrine of the superior rights of the individual states. According to this constitutional interpretation, the actual sovereignty lay with the states, the union was only a voluntary union of the member states, which they could leave at any time (secession). In the decades before the civil war, the southern states adopted this doctrine and championed it with passion against the central power and majority of the northern states.

territory

(Territory)

Name for an area belonging to the USA, but not yet organized as a state due to a lack of sufficient population (60,000). apart from Alaska (1958) and Hawaii (1959), the last territories to be elevated to states in 1912 were Arizona and New Mexico.

union

(Short for United States of America, abbreviated USA)

Name for the union of the United States and especially for the central power of the federal government in contrast to the individual states. With the secession of 1860/61, the Union effectively melted into the northern states and some border states. Therefore, during the Civil War, "Union" is synonymous with "Northern States", while the Southern States united to form their own league, the "Confederation".

Subway

(Underground Railroad)

Name for secret abolitionist organizations that before the civil war smuggled runaway slaves through the territory of the USA in disregard of the federal slave flight laws and helped them to escape to Canada.

Amendment to the Constitution

(Amendment)

Amendment to the US Constitution. It can be proposed by either House of Congress by a two-thirds majority or by two-thirds of the state legislatures, and will come into effect once three-quarters of the latter have ratified it.

electors

(Electors)

The President and Vice President of the United States are not directly elected by the people, but by state electorates. Each state receives as many electors as it has Congressmen in both Houses combined.YankeesMockery of uncertain origin first for the residents of New England, then for the Northerners in general. Though often applied to all Americans abroad, it is still the common name for Northerners in the South today. During the war, the short form "Yanks" was common in soda data jargon, occasionally resulting in the personification "Billy Yank" as a counterpart to "Johnny Reb".