Approach girls men in BITS Pilani

Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin


1 Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin InstI tute for AdvA nced s tudy year book 2010/2011 published by LucA Giuliani with reports and contributions by Anne van Aaken Kamran Asdar Ali Janis Antonovics Mike Boots and Pietro Bortone Robert Boyer Bruce MS Campbell Frederick Cooper and Dieter Ebert Frank Fehrenbach Steven Feierman Petra Gehring uuu Behrooz Ghamari-Tabrizi Hannah Ginsborg Beatrice Gruendler uu Wolfgang Holzgreve Toshio Hosokawa Nancy Rose Hunt Stefan Huster uuu Olivia Judson Elias Khoury Albrecht Koschorke Christiane Kruse uuu David Kyaddondo Niklaus Largier uuu David Kyaddondo uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu from Messud Birgit Meyer uuu Herbert Muyinda Iruka N. Okeke Thomas Pavel Tanja uuu Petrović Barbara Piatti Terry Pinkard Andrei G. Plesu Krzysztof Pomian uuu Mary Poss Ilma Rakusa Ben M. Sadd Vikram Sampath Karl Schlögel uuuu Jean-Claude Schmitt Reinhard Strohm Alexander Verlinsky uu. Jojada Bahru Zewde Hanns Zischl he u u

2 Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin InstI tute for AdvA nced s tudy year book 2010/2011

3 2012 by Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin Institute for Advanced Study Berlin All rights reserved, including those of photomechanical reproduction Editing: Angelika Leuchter Typesetting and printing: Buch- und Offsetdruckerei H. Heenemann, Berlin Buchbinder: Bruno Helm, Berlin Printed in Germany 2012 ISBN portrait photos P. 57: Fred Wall; P. 76: Kathrin Binner; P. 108 and 178: Maurice Weiss; P. 159: Derek Shapton; P. 207: J. Sassier / Gallimard; P. 270: Hendrik Jordan






9 Writing about Student revolt in its Heartland ba Hru ZeW de Study Ritual, not Belief HannS ZiScH ler lecture n ižnij novgorod 1896: world exhibition on the Volga or russia's start into the 20th. r eading clinical case studyS for SyStemic insights Steven Feierman and julie livingston 10 Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin Jahrbuch 2010/2011

10 Foreword by De S HeRAuSGeBeRS the year mainly looked south: there was an unusually high concentration of Africa researchers. An important focus was the group of anthropologists who dealt with dilemmas in medical professional practice in Africa: a problem area whose explosiveness was evident and which quickly became an overarching topic of conversation. The southern line of sight was then unexpectedly sharpened in the spring by the events in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya; large groups of fellows found each other in front of the television and looked together at tahrir square. The conversations with the fellows from the region: Lebanon, Ethiopia, Iran and Pakistan were at least as exciting as the TV reports before and after. The writer Elias Khoury could now at least get to know beyond or this side of his literary work as a keen observer of a movement that had surprised him like all of us, and which saw in him one of its most important intellectual leading figures. The discussions about the possibilities, about the dangers, about the future of the Middle Eastern world filled many hours (Anne van Aaken, 15; cf. also 22, 42, 54, 128, 143). the tendency to allow one another to infect one another was unmistakable; and that was not only true of interest in the Arab Spring. By the end of the year, it felt to me as though nearly every person felt that the intellectual passions of the others enriched her own, his own, writes Steven Feierman (72) and continues: Most of us allowed ourselves to be bathed in laughter, and laughter dissolved the egos. This laugh, which I also remember as a mood indicator, runs like a leitmotif through many of the reports: What stands out most in my memory of this year is the unrelenting foreword by the editor 11

11 hilarity. It was cathartic. (Julie Livingston, 158). We laugh a lot and there is lightness in the little self-irony with which one can communicate among adults about the high level of seriousness that all this has for us. (Petra Gehring, 78). Finally, giggling can also become an object of anthropological self-reflection: the giggling played no mean role. Sometimes nervous, sometimes infectious, laughter was one of the repetitions. [] Since laughter is also a subject in my histories, let me suggest the following: a sense of being at risk of ridicule may linger in a situation where laughter is so intense, fund, and everyday, deployed to include and em brace, while still unsettling and keeping alert. (Nancy Rose Hunt, 117; cf. also 15, 19, 188). Accordingly, the collective hilarity seems to have acted more as an incentive and tickle than as a sedative. Now, according to Freud, laughter results, as is well known, from the fact that the subject can free himself (always only temporarily) from the pressure of cultural pressures to adapt. But where did the pressure come from in our case? Albrecht Koschorke describes it very precisely as a double bind: in the first few days, the newly arrived fellow is given two opposing impulses []. The first, official assignment is: write your book. The second, somewhat more informal piece of advice is: Take the opportunity to exchange ideas with researchers from all over the world, and let yourself be given new ideas []. Best of all, you come out of the year at Wiko as a changed mind with a completely new project! In short, the two imperatives are: withdraw, shut yourself up! and at the same time: open up! (131). Was this the reason for the contagious cheerfulness of the whole year? Koschorke also delivers a cultural theoretical guiding hypothesis: Inner contradiction is essential for the cohesion and vitality of a system; too much conclusiveness and consistency could easily ruin it; This applies to human societies as well as to theories (130f.). The fellow fellows might have met this diagnosis with laughter once more. however, it gives us cause to look to the future with optimism. Luca Giuliani 12 Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin yearbook 2010/2011

12 work reports

13 A YEAR FULL OF PRIVILEGES A NNe van AAKeN Anne van Aaken is Max-Schmidheiny tenure track professor for law and economics, public law, international and european law at the University of St. Gallen. Before that, she was a research assistant at the Max Planck Institute for Common Goods and for Foreign Public Law and International Law. She studied law in Munich, is admitted to the bar and did her doctorate at the european university viadrina. She has a master's degree in economics and a diploma in journalism from the University of Friborg (CH). She was a visiting scholar at the universities of Berkeley and Yale and has lectured at several universities in Latin America, Africa and Asia. She is Vice-President of the European Association of Law and Economics and a member of the Programmatic Steering Board of the Hague Institute for the Internationalization of Law. Her most recent publications concern: international investment protection law, international law in the economic crisis, international law theory, political corruption and the regulation of financial markets as part of global administrative law. Address: Law Department, University of St. Gallen, Guisanstrasse 36, 9010 St. Gallen, Switzerland. Non-academic friends or acquaintances often asked what the Wiko was. a hybrid of boarding school and academic zoo, I mostly replied. A boarding school because we all lived together (villa Walther and villa Jaffé), ate together, went to a concert or the opera together, discussed and laughed together. and of course because I, but I think we all have learned a lot, from each other and with one another. 14 Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin yearbook 2010/2011

14 a zoo because so many colorful creatures come together here, exploring unknown, sometimes exotic things, which are incredibly exciting and which you don't necessarily think about otherwise. a fellow fellow, whom I shared my characterization with over lunch in October 2010, looked at me somewhat confused, but was reassured when I told him that most of the visitors passed the lawyers' cage, bored, and were more interested in his. Can I tell you about some of the highlights? actually not, because everything was a highlight: it was the combination of everything that made this incredible year at the Wiko. Starting with the arrival and the astonishment that all employees knew our names and gave us such a warm welcome. About the introductions to the fellowship lectures, which were so personal, instructive and beautiful that Karl Schlögel and Beatrice Gruendler constructed a new literary genre from them at the farewell party, the lectures themselves, the discussions afterwards (which were always so stimulated that we got scolding please stop on time), which then shifted the conversations to lunch. The dinners were often long. Not only was there veritas in the vino, but again it was almost like school, we could be wonderfully silly with each other, the room was often full of laughter. I would like to highlight the concerts at Wiko, the evening lectures and, in particular, the lectures by the Permanent Fellows - they provide a framework and inspiration. Lorraine Daston's early lecture (From Reason to Rationality) in particular stimulated numerous conversations and discussions, as it raised fundamental questions about the history and theory of science; Questions that concern us all. The workshops, even if they were unrelated to the subject, were a wonderful opportunity to listen to the unfamiliar research areas. Again and again similarities, parallels emerged: research methods, limits of knowledge, scientific theoretical foundations and even in the detail of research there were trou vailles. These are the wonderful surprises hidden in the interdisciplinary conversation. For our year, the arab spring was added in the spring. We all fevered together in front of the television in the main house before Hosni Mubarak's speech, which we expected he would resign (which he did not do until later). The discussions about the possibilities, about the dangers, about the future of the Middle Eastern world filled many hours. And there were also conversations with a more general background: the good order of society, what does it look like and how can it be constructed in times of uncertainty and upheaval? work reports 15

We dealt with 15 questions that preoccupied many of us in a private salon, to which everyone took something to eat and drink. Grunewald, with its formerly many and important Jewish residents, is special as a place and lets you ask questions that we should not stop trying to answer: How banal is evil? How does it arise and how does it spread? How can you prevent it? How can it be processed? Questions that are not only relevant here in Germany, on Wallotstrasse, on the corner of which Rathenau was shot, Walter Benjamin and Samuel Fischer lived, where you stumble over a stumbling block at every corner. Among other things, it is also relevant for the Indo-Pakistani division, for the events in the former Yugoslavia, for Rwanda, for many African countries. and there was always someone who worked on it, who knew the story, who could help with questions. In this context, I have received answers to some questions that I have been tossing and turning for a long time. Where and when do you find something like that again? a year at Wiko is like studying at the highest level; I have ordered mountains of books, music and films that I will slowly work through. The suggestions and the aroused curiosity will show their effects for a long time to come. Kamran and I were elected, no, better appointed, as fellow speakers. At the beginning we didn't know what to expect, and Luca Giuliani said that we should speak once every two weeks to see if there were any concerns, problems, etc. But we never needed it, there were no conflicts (from time to time little conflicts), only organization, from which we always received a lot of help. Christmas tree, bake cookies for the employees, cook for the employees, who organize the farewell party. it was more fun than work and a valued vote of confidence for Kamran and me. The warmth, friendliness and good humor of the employees shine in the house on Wallotstrasse and accompany the fellows. We were particularly privileged because we could still be here under the eyes of Christine von Arnim and Joachim Nettelbeck. How often have our wishes been granted before we even expressed them? and not only, but most often in the dining room. it is like being released from prison when we all return home, according to one fellow fellow: you can no longer find your way around in the real world. he is right, it was such an unusual and wonderful year that it will not be easy to return to everyday university life. Saying goodbye dragged on for two weeks: in addition to the farewell party practically every day, a meal, a glass of wine, at least to see again, another 16 Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin Jahresbuch 2010/2011

16 t discuss topics, ask questions that have not yet been discussed before the last ones left, if the weather permitted, outside on the terrace of Villa Walther with the beautiful view of the lake. it was a bit of a dreary feeling, similar to the Abitur, when you say goodbye to your class. We will try to celebrate a small revival at the alumni meetings of the Fellow Club in two years and look forward to this opportunity. In addition to the fulfilled life at the Wiko, your own research is of course very important. I had previously tried to take time only for my book and not write anything else (which I almost succeeded in doing). I didn't want to turn down lectures at the Humboldt University it was nice to return to where I was employed as a research assistant ten years ago. My book itself has not progressed as far as originally planned, primarily for personal and health reasons. But it benefited a lot from the discussions here with the lawyers at Wiko, but also with colleagues from Humboldt University and Freie Universität. and of course the conversations with the other fellows and spouses. Last, but not least, of the excellent service provided by the library. My book project State Liability in the Guarantee State can be read elsewhere, which is why I do not want to take it up here. work reports 17

17 A YeAR SPeNt IN WIKOStAN: unforgettable MeMORIe S K AMRAN ASDAR ALI Kamran Asdar Ali is Associate Professor of Anthropology and Director of the South Asia Institute at the university of texas, Austin. He is the author of planning the family in egypt: new Bodies, new selves (ut Press, 2002). Along with Martina Rieker, he guest edited urban Margins: envisioning the contemporary Global south (Social text 95) and also co-edited Gendering urban space (Palgrave 2008) and comparing cities: Middle east and south asia (OuP 2009). During his fellowship at the Wissenschaftskolleg he completed a book-length manuscript on the cultural history of the Pakistani Left tentatively titled Surkh Salam (Red Greetings).Address: Department of Anthropology, the university of texas at Austin, 3200 One university Station, Austin, tx 78712, usa. We as a family arrived in Berlin on August 15, As we entered the large villa where we would spend the next eleven months of our lives, we came across another family of new arrivals. these were Claire Messud and James Wood and their two lovely kids walking their dogs. None of our bags had made it with us. We were standing on the gravel with little care packages (tiny toothpastes and undersized undergarments that the airline people had handed out to us). James gave us comfort by relating his own story of missing bags with British Airways, the airline we had taken from the us. the children mingled and we all left with the promise to meet again. As we walked away with our strangelooking round keys in hand, I whispered to Syema, my wife, that was Claire Messud, she is a famous author 18 Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin Jahresbuch 2010/2011

18 Prior to coming to the Wiko I had read and reread the names of the Fellows who would spend the year with me. All seemed, like Claire, so much more accomplished and famous. the idea that one would have to eat meals every day with people of such high intellectual stature made me wonder what these encounters would be like. I wondered, Will I be condemned to saying something smart every three minutes or otherwise be considered a much lower species on the evolutionary ladder? the year turned out to be just the opposite. I looked forward to our lunches, not only to discover what was on the menu sometimes a real surprise but also for the conversation, the greetings and the laughter, always the laughter. even if we were sitting at separate tables one would hop over for dessert to another one and join the conversation there and have coffee with yet another set of colleagues. If we became too engrossed in discussing the latest opera performance and its unorthodox interpretation while working through our lamb curry and couscous, we could always move our chair to the other table where Behrooz Ghamaritabrizi was telling yet another of his hilarious anecdotes, bringing smiles and laughter from the entire table. Such small meetings, like the one our family had with Claire and James and the ones shared around lunch and Thursday dinner tables, soon became friendships that I suspect will last all of us a lifetime. For my family and me, it was the best of times (to quote Dickens, but just partly). Wiko was the gracious host that provided us with a comfortable apartment, the boys went to JFK (thanks to Andrea), and I had a spacious office to work on my book. What else could a middle-aged academic want from life? Berlin itself was a discovery. I had been to Germany before, but had flown in and out of airports on my way to this conference or that. I had not lived in the country and understood the rhythms of its towns or the character of its social life. Wiko made it possible for us to feel at home in Berlin and explore the city and the country. Grunewald itself was a discovery; walking to Kaiser s at the S-Bahn station and then in other parts of the area gave us a sense of its late nineteenth-century grandeur, yet also made us very aware of the horrors of the post-weimar years. the plaques on the Platform 17 at the S-Bahn in Grunewald brought alive a much more tragic dimension of the city s past, which of course we had admired for its early nineteenth-century architecture in the areas surrounding unter den Linden in the Mitte district . These layers of history were interwoven in many ways in our day-to-day life, whether in the stolpersteine ​​in the front of villa Jaffé or in the history of the main building itself. work reports 19

19 Once on a cold January morning we also took our sons to the main Berlin cemetery in the eastern part of the city, where we and thousands of others honored Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, the communist leaders who were brutally murdered by the rightwing nationalist Free Corps in January In contrast to the calm and prosperity of present-day Berlin, the visit brought to life how, between the years, there were more than 350 political murders and several popular insurrections in Germany. the murder of the moderate politician and Foreign Minister, Walter Rathenau, in June 1922 was of course one of the most serious of such events. Remembering the Berlin uprising that led to Luxemburg and Liebknecht s death and revisiting Rathenau s murder (every day we passed the memorial commemorating the exact spot where he was killed) as bookends for the violence that encompassed Germany in the early twentieth century made me also think about Pakistan and my own work on the communist movement there. It reminded me of how contemporary Pakistan (at the risk of historical oversimplification) was somewhat like Weimar Germany, a volatile society in which various social and political forces are vying for power. Pakistan today has an elected government that is engulfed in problems of suicide bombings and remains a reluctant participant in the us-led global war on terror in the northwest of the country. It is facing high unemployment rates, an acute energy crisis, rampant inflation and a nationalist insurgency in Balochistan. the government, itself tainted by scandals of corruption and inept governance, is, of course, always mindful of an army that continues to wait patiently to see it falter. I am of course not sure whether the analogy holds, but for me to be working on Pakistan while sitting in Berlin made the history of those early Weimar days more palpable. These thoughts remained with me when I started to complete the manuscript for which I was awarded the fellowship. I remain grateful that the Wissenschaftskolleg provided me with the space and support to finish a draft of a book-length manuscript during the course of my year of residence. My writing revisited Pakistan s founding moment, in which the ideological stress was on Muslim nationalism that would unify the Muslims of South Asia under the symbol of the emergent state. Yet in the text I argue that, from its very inception in 1947, the diversity of people s lives and particularistic cultural experiences remained in perpetual tension with this order. the mistrust shown by the new Pakistani state, wrapped as it was in the ideology of Muslim nationalism, toward the diverse aspirations of its own people led it to impose a meta-narrative of an undivided nation on the populace. A reaction to this political process was the gradual cracking of the ideological edifice of a moral 20 Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin yearbook 2010/2011

20 community. For example, by the mid-1950s regional and nationalistic claims by Pakistan s diverse ethnic groups severely tested the promise of the Muslim nationalism that led to the creation of Pakistan in Foremost among these was the voice of its Bengali citizens, who as the largest demographic part claimed their economic and linguistic rights from the overtly centralizing state in Karachi, fourteen hundred miles away from Dhaka. Within this context, I argue in the text that such histories are often deleted from nationalist master narratives that induce selective national amnesia because these events fit awkwardly into neatly woven patterns. Hence, in Pakistani historiography, in which the major preoccupation remains the narrative surrounding the creation of Pakistan, many aspects of national life are given scant attention. One major arena of national amnesia that my project addresses is the absence of any serious work on the nascent Communist Party of Pakistan s (CPP) relationship with the populace and the state. In my research I critically engage with the history of Pakistan s early years, paying special attention to the CPP during its brief period of legal existence after Pakistan gained its independence. In pursuing this task the book concentrates on documenting the history of the working class movement while also focusing on cultural processes to offer a perspective beyond the official retelling of Pakistan s history, which periodically omits how the new country struggled to find the ideological and cultural basis for its creation and existence. the important element here is that by working on the text at Wiko it has become a different piece of writing than what it would have been. the tuesday seminars (with Hannah Ginsborg s insightful first questions or thomas Pavel s delightfully humorous yet serious interventions) and their discussions were a major inspiration for new thought and also for critically evaluating my own established ideas about the book and its various dimensions. My colleagues were generous and always forthcoming with ideas and suggestions about my work. Frederick Cooper s early-on reading of a chapter of mine (we were both standing for the M-19 bus at Halensee on a very cold December evening and decided to share our work with each other) was an act of intellectual generosity that I can never forget, similar thomas Pavel and Karl Schlögel gave me important references from the Soviet literary debates of the 1930s and 1940s that I have judiciously incorporated into my chapters, expanding their scope and in the process also changing the thrust of the argument. Julie Livingston not only has become a dear friend (as others have), but also read my chapters in draft form and commented on the book prospectus that I was preparing for the press, for which I remain indebted to her. For my tuesday presentation, Behrooz introduced me with a sense of comradeship, intellectual commitment and a work reports 21

21 sense of humor that is unique to him. I could name all my colleagues who in many ways either influenced my work, made me think in new and innovative ways, opened up my mind to fresh ideas or heard me out when I needed to share something half-baked. I cannot thank each and every one enough. As I progressed in my writing I also felt confident in starting to contemplate my future research plans. Luca Giuliani, the Rector, kindly allowed me to host the Pakistani architect and urban planner, Arif Hasan, in March Arif Hasan and I have been discussing the prospects of working together on a cultural history of Karachi, the city where both of us grew up . this follows from my on-going parallel research interest in urban form and social life. What was amazing and important was that Sonja Grund and her colleagues in the library made it possible for me to have access to archival material on the subject that would have otherwise required me to travel in one case to Greece and in another to the united Kingdom. the library at Wissenschaftskolleg is an amazing space. How things are made available to the fellows speaks of the dedication, hard work and ingenuity of the staff members. Kirsten Graupner s perseverance in getting me papers from the Greek architect Doxiadis office library in Athens was something unimaginable. Doxiadis was the planner for the new parts of Karachi during the early 1960s, and his documents are crucial to understanding the development of the city in that period. I could not have had access to them unless Kirsten had arranged for them to be shipped to Berlin. I am sure each and every Fellow who has been to the Institute has her own story regarding the library and the wonders that it can accomplish. In addition to the normal workings of the Wissenschaftskolleg, its support of the e urope in the Middle east Middle east in europe (eume) program is important to mention. especially in this year when the Arab Spring opened up the possibility of thinking anew the future of the entire Middle east region, having a number of young bright scholars who worked on the region was an important addition to the scholarly discussions during the year. Of course elias Khoury s presence as a fellow and the organizing of public forums where he spoke enhanced the level of public debate on the Middle east and the question of Arab-Israeli politics to a level that showed farsightedness and intellectual courage on the part of Wiko s leadership for which they deserve to be commended. One can only thank the leadership and staff of the Wissenschaftskolleg for making the year such a special one. Whether the visit arranged by eva von Kügelgen to the Brecht 22 Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin Jahrbuch 2010/2011

22 Museum, with the unforgettable episode of elias Khoury s attraction to the writer s chair, or the Rector s organizing of the visit to the Humboldt House, where François Lissarrague shared his immense knowledge to help us understand Greek Antiquity, we were always in the realm of discovery and of acquiring new knowledge. Finally, the day-to-day life at Wiko had its own predictable rhythms and pleasures. Walking into the building in the morning and saying hello to vera Schulze-Seeger, who was always smiling and willing to help, going down to the dining hall for that best of all breakfasts or simply a coffee where again one greeted the ever-gracious Katarzyna Speder, sometimes taking a detour and going up the stairs to say hi to friends like Katharina Biegger (who was my first contact to Wiko, and I am still indebted to her for bringing me to Berlin), Francisco Martinez-Casas or Katharina Wiedemann. Whether in the main building, the Fellow Services (with Andrea Bergmann, Corina Pertschi, and Nina Kitsos), or in the It department (Wiebke Güse, Petra Sonnenberg, Roman Riebow and others) or Dennis Grimm with his mild manners, always willing to help, it was evident that the entire place and its staff were present to assist the fellows. As I mentioned above, the friendships that we created will last our lifetime. I write this from Austin and in the past few weeks since we have returned many of us have written and spoken to each other about the loss of the everyday companionship, the community that we had created and how we miss each other. this sense of loss is indeed sad, yet meaningful. the nostalgic aspect aside, it is true that we will never be able to recreate the year that we spent together in Berlin. But the memories do remain. What I recall most are the moments of shared laughter, of happiness. For a year we were happy in Berlin, and the Wissenschafts kolleg made it possible. work reports 23

23 A YeAR LIKe NO OtH er JANIS ANtONOv ICS Lewis and Clark Professor of Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville. Born in Riga, Latvia, studied Genetics at the university of Cambridge and Agricultural Botany at the university College of North Wales. Past president of the Society for the Study of evolution and of the American Society of Naturalists. Fellow of the Royal Society and American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Researches the evolution and ecology of infectious diseases, especially sexually transmitted diseases in natural populations. Currently studying the impact of anther-smut disease on alpine plant distribution, the co-evolution of host-pathogen genetic systems, and the history of infectious disease. Address: Department of Biology, university of virginia, 051 Gilmer Hall, Charlottesville, va 22904, usa. My stay at Wiko was very wonderful and very successful. I had the time to explore new areas intellectually, finish manuscripts, meet new friends, and establish an academic family. It was quite unlike anything I had known in over forty years in academia; in many ways I felt I had finally arrived at a university where faculty were important and where there were real interactions across disciplines. there was the added bonus of coming to really like and enjoy the variety and vigor of Berlin, both in its people and as a city. the main tangible professional success, for which I have to thank Wiko, was to have a major grant proposal funded, and this will now support my research for the next five years. My previous attempts on this topic, carried out in the rush of various semesters, had failed. the research will investigate the question of how and under what circumstances parasites and pathogens affect population distributions if indeed they do. the question 24 Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin yearbook 2010/2011

24 is simple and obvious but, as in most areas of scholarship, it is the simple questions that often still hang in the air, waiting to be plucked (and hopefully answered). Being a blend of ecology and evolutionary biology, it is an issue that has fascinated me intellectually for several years. A bonus is that our study system is in the Italian Alps but as I write, I d much rather be in Berlin. A year ago I would never have imagined that I would come to prefer Berlin to Italy! Our focus group on Limits to Disease Control Failures in Disease made progress, but less than I had hoped. two manuscripts stemming from our discussions await editing, further plumping up, and of course the tedious task of doing the references. One manuscript deals with the issue of why most hosts are seemingly resistant to most pathogens. Much of the reason, we concluded, is that the pathogen lifestyle of necessity entails a high degree of specialization, and so evolution on one host withdraws the ability to infect other hosts. the resistance of most hosts to these many pathogens appears to be nonevolved and incidental. We gathered evidence for this from the literature, outlined how these ideas could be tested, and explored the implications for the study of infectious disease in humans using animal models. the other manuscript acquired the interim, if somewhat tongue-in-cheek title of e lephant in the Cupboard; and it is still somewhat touch and go whether the paper itself will ever leave the cupboard. the elephant is evolution. If there were no evolution we would already have controlled most of the world's main infectious diseases. We have had the drugs and vaccines to eliminate most pathogens (or their vectors), but they have been repeatedly made ineffective by the evolutionary responses of the pathogens. Yet there has not been serious acceptance and investigation of evolutionary processes in the field of biomedical research. the issue is how to achieve a commitment to this issue and to bring evolution out of the cupboard. Our discussions raised both biological and policy issues, and our focus group benefited greatly from the participation of other people at Wiko, especially Andrew Farlow, Britt Koskella, Iruka Okeke, and Ben Sadd. I also got a lot of help in unexpected ways, especially on how to approach a subject that was too big to handle. Robert Boyer, an economist, responded to my frustration by suggesting I do something crazy; so I drew cartoons, drawing inspiration from his seminar. Anne van Aaken, a scholar of international law, introduced me to the Precautionary Principle, and this stimulated me to indeed wonder if it might not be feasible to apply this principle to the loss of antibiotic usefulness due to the irreversibility of evolution. Most policy and work reports 25

25 regulatory activities do not take evolution into consideration, and I ended up thinking that they should very much.My own, largely unrelated readings on the germ theory in the 19th century also resonated with these issues of evolution; our own wishy-washy statements about overuse or misuse of antibiotics as the cause of antibiotic resistance had great similarities with victorian ideas about bad hygiene causing disease. In both cases the words that are used create an aura of authority and generality, when what is needed is commitment to a serious research program. Also, having time to reflect on the history of evolutionary biology made me realize that the fault for a failure to accept the importance of evolution (if blame could be assigned) also lay with the lack of institutional formalization of evolutionary biology. Our field has no certificate of professional competency, so it is no wonder that at the fringes there is much incompetency, casual speculation, and general helplessness. My book project made stuttering progress. the title changed regularly (Darwin, Linnaeus, and the Germ theory of Disease or Smut and the Scientists or A Mere Cryptogamic Powder) and will no doubt continue to do so. But the chapters, scope, and overall messages crystallized into something that I am very happy with and hope will be enter taining, interesting, and coherent for the reader. I gained confidence in how to approach writing through both trial and error, as well as through conversations with my colleagues at Wiko. the phrase rhetorical strategy took on new meaning, and I realized there was more to writing than the reasoned, narrow approach of a science paper; and that writing may indeed sometimes turn out better if done in coffee shops and away from the office context. Inevitably perhaps, I still had to deal with the scientific papers that were in the pipeline. However, because all I wanted to do was Wiko work, I found it thoroughly frustrating and distracting. But perhaps I should not complain. I had three manuscripts accepted for publication and submitted two more. In the process of working on one of them, I had enough time to do some programming, beyond just providing words for the manuscript, and this stimulated me into new ideas and directions in understanding how the genetics of host-pathogen genetic interactions are molded by evolution and how to attack the subject theoretically. Discussions with others in our focus group and with Laura Rose, a visiting scientist, gave me many new ideas, and I am keen to pursue these new directions over the coming months. there were other benefits of Wiko. I felt I cemented my interest in the visual arts. Our images group, an informal unplanned gathering, was one of the highlights of my stay 26 Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin Jahresbuch 2010/2011

26 in Wiko. Not only did I make very good friends through this group, but also thoroughly enjoyed co-editing the photobook at the end of the year with two of them, François Lissarrague and Christiane Kruse. As Christiane pointed out, at least we finished one book this year. Historians taught me how to cite sources and to feel more relaxed with ibids. Bahru Zewde, on discovering that there were still more biologists but fewer historians among next year s Fellows, was dismayed: Without us historians you biologists will become insects. You need historians to give you your humanity. At which point my other villa Jaffé neighbor Behrooz Ghamari-tabrizi interceded: But history proves that we are all still animals. I thoroughly enjoyed correcting the Arabian poetry for my other neighbor, Beatrice Gruendler, and she reciprocated when I had some German translations. We even translated an older German poem together, but disappointingly it was rejected by the new yorker. But we hope to publish it in a journal with a lower impact factor. With a visitor, Klaus Reinhardt, I started a project on infectious diseases and their impact on sperm longevity. Klaus also guided me skillfully and patiently through the depressing Berlin Document Center and the university archives in Halle and Heidelberg. These visits helped me cement some aspects of the life of Wilhelm Ludwig, a German evolutionary biologist whose work has been neglected. I found out that my initial publication on him in the early 1990s is the only paper of mine that has never been cited in the scientific literature, which makes me more determined than ever to keep going! I also translated one of Ludwig's seminal papers and hope that at least this may be cited at some time in the future. We also found Ludwig s house in Heidelberg, but alas after a lot of searching failed to find his grave in the nearby cemetery !! Next time, maybe. emotionally, it was a strange year, quite unlike any of my previous sabbaticals. Now while still in my dorm room (albeit a very luxurious one) in villa Jaffé, I feel I have just been through my first year at college, am just learning how everything works, and of course looking forward to having a greater chance of losing my virginity now that I am a more confident student. Alas, next year in this all too ephemeral college won t happen (even though perhaps other things aren t precluded!). For me there were three very full semesters, separated by the Christmas and easter holidays when I went back to the usa, where I normally live. the first semester was difficult and complicated. this was largely for personal reasons. I was born in Riga, Latvia, and as a child had been in a refugee camp north of Germany. eventually we settled in england, but my summers as a teenager were spent in work reports 27

27 Austria, where my godmother and her family had ended up after the Second World War. After university, I had turned down a fellowship to study in Germany because I got my first choice for graduate work. So I had always wanted to come back to a German-speaking country. Alas in Berlin, the German past came to life for me more vividly than I had wanted it to, and it was difficult to reconcile my own enthusiasms for being here with some of the realities of the past. For example, Platform 17, which I was shown only a few months after passing it many times at Grunewald, was a shock, made worse by the snow on the platform memorials; one of them documented that 963 Jews were deported to Riga, a day after my birth there. the Stasi museum was modest, but the sheer size of the office complex that had orchestrated the repression was staggering, and seemed to condemn more than just a few individuals. I was very upset by discovering (through readings in our German class) that on reunification of east and West Germany, there was a wholesale take-over of university positions in the east by professors in the West with almost no respect for academic freedom (a process euphemistically labeled the processing). It was a case of McCarthyism mixed not with populism, but with elitism; and it maintained the oppressive and hierarchical academic system of West German universities. Were the people who did this now my colleagues here? to then discover that over 300 hours of language classes, a rigorous test, and at least 8 years of residency were required for German citizenship seemed to confirm the same-old attitudes. So it was a complex and somewhat difficult time for me. My second semester, after Christmas, was less intense emotionally, but wasteful and therefore a bit exhausting. I read a tremendous amount, but did not take enough notes. I chased sources, but took too many false turns. I tried to get objective facts and didn t appreciate enough that at times there was no point. I looked for rational continuity of chapters, but was palpably failing to entertain the reader. However, it was a joy to get support from my colleagues who emphasized how they too get stuck on writing, how they too have good periods and bleak periods, and that books take years not months. I did eventually make considerable headway on my proposed book, but never got into a good balance and rhythm in terms of reading, note taking, and writing. I still am not sure I am capable. the opportunity to read widely and to think about many disciplines, from sociology to history to art, was wonderful. For a period of several months, I went through a very strong sense that I wanted to leave the sciences and join the humanities. It seemed that how things were said, how they were culturally presented, and what resonated with poli- 28 Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin Jahresbuch 2010/2011

28 ticians and other power brokers was much more affected by the humanities than the sciences; the humanities were surprisingly useful! Barring advances in medical science and the realization that we may be destroying the planet, science seems to have provided us with little beyond conveniences and gadgets. But over the course of this winter semester this feeling was replaced by realism. I just do not have the competency or background scholarship to enter a humanities field productively; seeing the knowledge, commitment, and depth of my colleagues here was really humbling. I also felt there were too many intangible tempting tentacles in which to become entrapped. eventually, even quite self-consciously, I found myself needing something solid and tangible. For one afternoon a week, I started going over to the Botanical Museum, recording disease on the herbarium specimens there, and though it was a small, even trivial task, it was something very concrete and reassuring. the third summer semester was busy, exciting, and chaotic. I had committed to a number of seminars around Germany, and all my visitors seemed to descend on Berlin as spring and summer approached. But all the residual stuff had been taken care of, and I felt I was finally settling into some form of creative work. I made progress on the group project, new ideas came to the fore, and the summer evenings were surrounded by the lakes, by biking, and by discovering the infinite variations of Berlin lifestyles and then it was all over. For a few weeks before the end of the year I felt incredibly frustrated. Obviously, I had come here to try to do too many things, with too optimistic a frame of mind. In all of the projects progress was made, but I ended up very discouraged that I finished very little of what I came here to do. So the last few weeks I was a bit overwhelmed by the sense of incompleteness. I was told this was normal, but this didn t help much. But on a rational level, I am anything but discouraged. the optimist in me knows that many of the things I started here will be finished and will continue. I am already looking into options for returning to Berlin there is a possibility of a flat for next year, and through contacts at the Freie universität, I have been encouraged to apply for a Humboldt Fellowship. I am also looking forward to continuing many of the rich friendships I formed. So I hope my year like no other will continue, somehow, somewhere. work reports 29

29 evolution IN th e GRu N ewa LDM IKe BOOtS Mike Boots has been Professor of Disease Biology in the Department of Animal and Plant Sciences at the university of Sheffield since Previously he held Readerships at the universities of Sheffield and Stirling and was a Natural environmental Advanced Postdoctoral Fellow from 2000 until Having completed his Ph.D. in 1993 at the university of Liverpool, he held fellowships in Japan, starting with a Royal Society / Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Postdoctoral Research Fellowship at Kyoto university followed by a european union Science and technology Postdoctoral Research Fellowship in the Laboratory of theoretical Biology, Kyushu university and a Center of excellence Postdoctoral Fellowship at the Institute of tropical Medicine, Nagasaki university. He has broad research interests in the ecology / epidemiology and evolution of infectious disease combining mathematical models with laboratory model insect virus systems to understand general patterns and specific wildlife and disease problems. He is Chair of the NeRC responsive mode panel and a member of the ReF Biosciences panel and will take up a professorship in exeter university this summer. Address: College of Life and environmental Sciences, the university of exeter, Cornwall Campus Penryn, tr10 9eZ, Great Britain. My year at the Wissenschaftskolleg has been remarkably productive and liberating. My intention for my year in Wiko was to write some large grant proposals, to finish many old papers, to learn evolutionary wisdom from Janis, Dieter, Rich and Curt, to develop a general theory of the role of epidemiological feedbacks on the evolution of diversity in hosts and parasites and to read more. I found that I read more, developed a 30 Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin Jahresbuch 2010/2011

30 general theory on the role of epidemiological feedbacks on the evolution of diversity (more of this later), learned so much from my conversations with Janis, Dieter, Rich, Curt, Ben, Lynda, Mary, Iruka, Paul, Andy and Olivia, finished most of my papers (see the reference list) and am pleased to say I wrote no grants. Once I had realized that it would be sacrilege to write grants at Wiko, I was very productive. One major part of my activity has been three group projects aimed at big problems. Many of us at the Wiko feel that evolution should play a bigger role in medical practice, as along with explaining well-known evolutionary problems such as drug resistance, evolution has the potential to play an important role in rational treatment design. Led by Janis, in the first few months at the Kolleg we had many stimulating meetings that will lead to an article arguing how and when evolutionary thinking can help in medicine. Coming out of this, we also developed an interest as a group in understanding the evolution of specificity in hosts and parasites. My final group project came about via Internet conference call most weeks, where a group of researchers asked how predictable the virulence of an emerging disease would be (probably not) and when we might be able to predict what will happen to virulence after the emergence ( we may have some useful things to say). the Kolleg provided us the time to really think and explore new directions and ideas, and I believe these three papers will make important contributions to the field. the other major part of my new work was a journey with my collaborators to try to develop a general theory of how ecological feedbacks can generate and maintain diversity in host-parasite interactions. It is very common to find that some parasites infect very well and that some hosts are very resistant. This variation is important because it affects the evolution of virulence and immunity, ages the spread of disease and may have important implications for disease control. However, we don t yet have a good idea of ​​what processes maintain this variation. I've been publishing models of the evolution of host defense for most of my career. In the last year, thanks to Wiko-sponsored visits by my key collaborators, we have brought all of this together and now have a good idea of ​​what processes are likely to lead to diversity: (i) infection within families and (ii) particular combinations of parasite and hosts not infecting one another. the theoretical results have now been written up in two papers. Without my time at the Kolleg this work would have been much more piecemeal and I doubt we would have gained such an integrated overview of the problem. I would like to thank the Rector for funding my main collaborator Andy White s two visits. We are both so very proud of this work. I now feel that I can move on work reports 31

31 from this problem that has consumed most of my research career. time for something new and I thank the college for that liberation. During my time in Berlin I gave lectures at five international meetings: the eeid meeting at the university of California Santa Barbara, usa; the NeSCent Catalysis Meeting on evolution of Infectious Diseases: Integrating empirical and Modeling Approaches at Duke; the Fogarty International Center RAPIDD Workshop on virulence evolution at Fort Collins; the Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência Workshop Resistance and tolerance to Infection in Lisbon; and the remarkable Darwin Meets Nobel Symposium the evolution of infectious agents in relation to sex in Sweden. All of these meetings were stimulating and I have no doubt that the presentations were improved by their preparation in the Grunewald, but I regretted leaving the Kolleg to present them. that said, I resented much more the time spent away on unavoidable committee meetings in the uk. Then there were the things that I had not planned: the development of an interest in the role of disease in human history, inspired by Bruce. the development and solidification of my views on the role of the developed world s scientific approach in health care in the developing world, inspired by Iruka. the relationship between medical intervention and economics, inspired by Andy, and a number of other wonderful distractions in history and philosophy. In the end, the time to think, talk and read in an environment of broadened horizons improved the quality of everything I did this year and will, I have no doubt, have an even bigger impact in the future. It was a year of academia as I imagined academia to be when I started out trying to be an academic. Papers published during the year Boots, M. and K. Roberts (2011). Indirect Maternal effects in Disease Resistance: Poor Maternal environment Increases Offspring Resistance to an Insect virus. proceedings of the royal society B (in revision). Boots, M. (2011). the evolution of host defense is determined by resource dependent costs. the american naturalist 178, Long, G.H. and M. Boots (2011). How Can Immune Attack Shape the evolution of Parasite virulence? trends in parasitology 27, Best, A., S. Webb, A. White and M. Boots (2011). Host Resistance and Co-evolution in Spatially Structured Populations. proceedings of the royal society B 278, Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin yearbook 2010/2011

32 tidbury, H., A. B. Pedersen and M. Boots (2011). Within and transgenerational Immune Priming in an Insect to a DNA virus. proceedings of the royal society, B 278, Jones, e. O., A. White and M. Boots (2011). the evolution of host protection by vertically transmitted parasites. proceedings of the royal society B 278, Best, A., S. Webb, J. Antonovics and M. Boots (2011). Local transmission processes and disease-driven host extinctions. theoretical ecology (in press). Reynolds, J.H., A. White, J.A. Sherratt and M. Boots (2011). the population dynamical consequences of density-dependent prophylaxis. Journal of theoretical Biology 288, 1 8. Bacelar, F. S., A. White and M. Boots (2011). Life history and mating systems select for male biased parasitism mediated through natural selection and ecological feedbacks.Journal of theoretical Biology 269, Saejeng, A., M. t. Siva-Jothy and M. Boots (2011). Low cost antiviral activity of Plodia interpunctella haemolymph in vivo demonstrated by dose dependent infection and haemolymph inoculation. Journal of insect physiology 57, Leggett, H.C., e. O. Jones, t. Burke, R. S. Hails, S. M. Sait and M. Boots (2011). Population genetic structure of the winter moth, Operophthera brumata, in the Orkney Isles suggests long distance dispersal. ecological entomology 36, vale, P.F., A. Best, M. Boots and t. J. Little (2011). Context-dependent parasitism and the tragedy of tolerance. the american naturalist 177, Antonovics, J., M. Boots, J. Abbate, C. Baker, q. McFrederick and v. Panjeti (2011). Biological and evolution of sexual transmission. annuals of the new york academy of science. work reports 33

33 BOt H PeACe AND StIMu LAt ION PIetRO BORtONe Pietro Bortone graduated in Classical, Medieval, and Modern Greek from King s College London. He then went to Oxford, where he obtained a Master s degree in Linguistic theory, a Master s degree in Comparative Philology, and a doctorate in Historical Linguistics. He also studied Scandinavian Studies at university College London. While completing his doctorate, at Oxford, he taught for the Faculty of Classics and for the Sub-Faculty of Byzantine and Modern Greek and worked for the oxford english dictionary. He won scholarships from the Wingate Foundation and from the Onassis Foundation. He was then awarded a post-doctoral Fellowship in Hellenic Studies at Princeton and a Summer Fellowship in Byzantine Studies at the Dumbarton Oaks Institute of Harvard. He subsequently taught Modern Greek literature, culture, and language at the university of Illinois at Chicago, where he also held a Fellowship at the Institute for the Humanities. He also received a LeMay Research Fellowship at Rhodes university before being elected Fellow of the Wissenschaftskolleg. He has now been elected a Fellow at the Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study at uppsala. He is the author of various articles in Greek linguistics and of the book Greek prepositions from antiquity to the present (Oxford university Press, 2010). Address: Wolfson College, Oxford Ox2 6uD, England. My central aim during my year at the Wissenschaftskolleg was to further my current research project. the project had started a few years ago as a study of an archaic variety of Greek still spoken in a few villages of northeastern Turkey, but the purview of my research later extended far beyond the philological aspects. 34 Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin yearbook 2010/2011

34 Greek has been spoken in northeastern Turkey for well over 2,500 years, evolving into a distinct branch known as Pontic. Pontic is spoken by two separate groups: Christians, who identify themselves as Greek and always had strong cultural ties with Greece, and a much less known minority of Muslims who, having adopted Islam centuries ago, have come to be regarded as turkish. While the Christians were all exiled from the area in the early 1920s, the Muslims have remained there to this day. Being devout Sunni and not regarding themselves as Greek, until recent years they had no contacts with the people, the culture or the language of Greece proper. Their language has therefore remained far more archaic than Modern Greek, not mutually intelligible with it and not influenced by it, very much in contrast to the Pontic spoken by the Christian and Greek-identified population that was expelled. From a philological viewpoint, the Muslim variety of Pontic (or Romayka, as the speakers call it) is therefore a goldmine for the information it provides about earlier stages of Greek. Romayka contains classical features, may help us to understand medieval texts (perhaps even date them) and casts light on the origins of Modern Greek grammatical forms. I got interested in Romayka in 2001 spurred by Peter Mackridge, Professor of Modern Greek at Oxford, a pioneer in the area and I worked on it intermittently while teaching and completing another, entirely unrelated large project (an analysis of the use of all prepo sitions in Greek, across the exceptionally long history of the language; my work identified, in the semantic changes that occurred, a systematic logic that partly answers a longstanding question debated in theoretical linguistics, in philosophy and in psychology). the focus of my work on Romayka, after archival research in Greece and fieldwork in turkey, broadened to comprise the socio-political and identity issues raised by the very existence of this language and its speakers. Romayka speakers, although retaining their peculiar Greek, have made a fascinating switch from Greek religion, Greek culture and Greek self-identification to their turkish counterparts which, in the traditional perceptions, are regarded as the opposite. the story of Muslim Greek-speakers thus brings into relief the historical transformation, the complexities and the contradictions of Modern Greek and Turkish national identities. these are of great interest because some of their features are unique and others highlight with exceptional clarity the unconscious mechanisms and conscious ploys at work also in the construction of the national identities of other countries. It is an area of ​​considerable interdisciplinary relevance for linguistics, classics, sociology, anthropology, history, cultural studies and more fields besides. work reports 35

35 I arrived at the Wissenschaftskolleg having written already more than three hundred pages of the book and carrying two suitcases of additional material: papers, documents, articles, clippings and, above all, masses of notes that I had been making across the last few years . through the Wiko library I obtained more material on general themes that my work touches upon. During my Fellowship I went through many of the documents I had collected and I endeavored to weave my thinking into a logically sequenced and accessible narrative rewording and restructuring what I had already written and adding three hundred more pages. the original plan was for one book made of four chapters, but the manuscript grew in size and in scope to the point that, during my Wiko year, I split it into two. What is now the first book manuscript, which is practically finished and will be seen by my publisher in the coming weeks, grows out of the first chapter of the single book initially conceived: it concerns various facets of the interrelation between language and ethnic, national and other social categorizations (just as examples: language shifts and their flexible relationship with changes in ethnic / national identification; multilingualism and contested or manifold affirmations or attributions of ethnic / national identity; different roles given to languages ​​in an imperial, national and globalized context ; multiple and variable criteria used to assign ethnicity; the use of language as a symbol of ethnic membership and ethnic continuity and as the rationale for political claims; metaphors used to describe and to advocate membership in a national / ethnic community; linguistic stereotypes of other nationalities and ethnicities). the second book manuscript concerns more specifically the changing constructions of Greek and Turkish national and ethnic identities, both inside and outside of Greece and turkey. It deals with the ways these constructions are reflected in the Greek and Turkish languages ​​and, conversely, the role that languages ​​play in Greek and Turkish identities; and it examines the case of the Romayka speakers, who do not fit with the official discourses of Greek and Turkish identities because they transitioned from one identity to the other but still use their older language (indeed, they use the most archaic form of Greek spoken anywhere, with features not even found in the artificially archaic Greek that in Greece was promoted as evidence of a truer and purer Greek identity). In my free time I also did smaller things, such as starting on an article I was commissioned on a different topic, peer-reviewing papers and applications, and such like. In part, my routine at the Wiko therefore consisted in a continuous cycle of reading and writing. But working at the Wiko entailed very much more than that: another aspect, very significant- 36 Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin Jahresbuch 2010/2011

36 cant at all levels (i.e. in chronological extent, intellectual stimulus and sheer enjoyment) was the continual exchanges I had with the people around me. At Wiko I was not just able to find peace and concentration in blissful solitude: I found also, thankfully, the opposite: I was able to have an on-going, thought-provoking, in-depth dialogue with a new set of inter locutors from a variety of fields and we had very few other commitments, so had time for one another. I approached people, as they approached me, with all sorts of questions and curiosities. I came to think about some issues in my field in novel ways, stimulated by seminars I attended on unrelated subjects and by questions put to me from the viewpoint of a variety of disciplines; the questions did not come only after my own seminar, but also during daily meals, or in s from Fellows who were either wrestling with issues pertinent to my field that had arisen in their own research, or who were just intrigued by my projects or my published work. At the Wiko, interdisciplinarity was a daily reality and not just a buzzword (the Wiko has been fostering interdisciplinarity since long before it became trendy), and all Fellows agreed that this was having a positive influence on them. We all quickly developed a deep sense of camaraderie and felt free to discuss a vast range of topics. I enjoyed great con versations with a long list of different people; among those I talked to most often or extensively were Hannah Ginsborg, Alexander verlinsky, Jane Burbank, Ilma Rakusa, Fred Cooper, Sandy Barnes, François Lissarrague, thomas Pavel, Susan Pinkard, terry Pinkard, Krzysztof Pomian, Kamran Asdar Ali, Birgit Meyer, Petra Gehring, Karl Schlögel, Bruce Campbell, tanja Petrović, Daniel Warren, Mary Poss, Curtis Lively, Lynda Delph, Oliver Lepsius, vikram Sampath, Raghavendra Gadagkar, Paul Schmid-Hempel and Reinhard Strohm. Moreover, the members of the Academic Administration and of the Head Office were also always among us, interested and involved; over lunch or breakfast, I exchanged ideas and views with Reinhart Meyer-Kalkus, Joachim Nettelbeck, eva von Kügelgen, Yehuda elkana and Luca Giuliani, enjoying their insights and questions. the Wiko and its Fellows also brought in guests. With some of them, too, I had engaging discussions, for instance with Carlo Ginzburg, Alexander Gavrilov and Diana Mishkova. Some guests put me in touch with other academics outside the Wiko; Others invited me to give seminars at their institutions during my time in Berlin. I was thus flown, with the support of the Wiko, to Bulgaria to give a seminar, and to Russia to give two seminars, and I was asked to give more in the near future in other institutes and countries. All the talks I gave so far triggered more interest and dialogue. work reports 37

37 Furthermore, the intellectual stimulation and pleasure offered by the Wiko did not come only from personal interactions. the Wiko continually organized seminars and conferences, as well as concerts and performances (both in-house and out), and even language classes. I had fellowships at other institutions elsewhere, and I had visited Berlin before and yet the Wiko surpassed my expectations and my hopes. Welcoming and civilized, organized and professional; the atmosphere was always very friendly and remarkably free of tensions. the Fellows, despite having different training and diverging views (something that the Wiko is not afraid of), were striving towards collective goals and not just pursuing personal luster. I am therefore thankful to my fellow Fellows and their partners for con tributing to creating an environment that was intellectually invigorating and yet free from pretentiousness or rivalries (I know that it could have gone differently and that this is something that the hosting institution cannot control) . And I am grateful to the Wiko for enabling me to have an exciting, productive and hugely enjoyable year. I have nothing but praise for the staff, from the Fellow Services offices, to the Library, to It and technical support, to the kitchens. they all always endeavored to help and accommodate all of us, far beyond the call of duty, demonstrating genuine concern. And then there was Berlin. Its limitless possibilities exhibitions, lectures, concerts, films and all manners of festivals, restaurants, markets and shops. I enjoyed the life and convenience of Berlin so much that, on leaving the Wiko at the end of the academic year, I rented a pied-à-terre in the center of the city. I visit often, and many of my Wiko fellow Fellows are already scheduled to come to be my guests. And even the Fellows who live too far to come to see me in Berlin or Oxford still cherish their memory of their Wiko year and keep in touch. 38 Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin yearbook 2010/2011

38 Le WIKO N est PAS un e MACHINe CAPABL e D ARRêteR L e temps ACAD émique C est un îlot DANS un OCéAN D extr êm e SP écialisat ION De S DISCIPLINe S ROBeRt BOYeR Né en 1943 à Nice, Robert Boyer a suivi une formation scientifique avant de se diriger en 1967 vers la recherche en économie, dans l administration publique (Commissariat au Plan, Ministère des Finances) puis, à partir de 1974, dans le cadre du Center National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS). Il a enseigné dans le cadre de l école des Hautes études en Sciences Sociales (ehess) de 1983 à Il poursuit depuis ses recherches en économie politique au Center Pour la Recherche en économie et ses Applications (CePReMAP). Il a reçu la Médaille d argent du CNRS et le titre de Docteur Honoris causa des universités de Buenos Aires et Louvain-La-Neuve et de fellow de la Society for the Advancement of Socioeconomics. Il a contribué à la théorie de la régulation qui vise à analyzer les trans formations institutionalnelles des économies capitalistes par la multiplication des recherches sur les trajectoires nationales à long terme et des comparaisons internationales portant sur la période actuelle. voir contemporary capitalism: the embeddedness of institutions, avec Rogers Hollingsworth: Cambridge university Press, 1997; theory of regulation. l état des savoirs, avec Yves Saillard, Paris, 2002 (anglais: London, 2001). Address: 7bis, boulevard Saint-Germain, Paris, France. Les ambitions et l optimisme de l automne 2010 L invitation au Wiko avait été précédée par une succession de séjours, respectivement à l unam de Mexico (1 semestre), à ​​la Copenhagen Business School (4 mois) puis à l université de Yokohama (2 mois), consacrés à des recherches sur les origines, le déroule- work reports 39

39 ment et les conséquences de la crise ouverte par la faillite de Lehman Brothers, le 15 septembre Il en ressortait que les multiple signes annonciateurs de cette crise avaient été mis à l écart au nom d une théorie économique, réputée enfin scientifique, qui assurait que le libre jeu des marchés, y compris financiers, conduisait à des ajustements économiques sans heurt ni crise. Ceci était surprenant au vu du program de recherches inspiré par la théorie de la régulation, puisque son objet n est autre que l analyze de la récurrence de diverse formes de crises, tantôt mineures de simple récessions tantôt majeures, comme le furent la Grande Dépression des années 1930 et en un sens celle qui marqua la fin de la forte croissance de l après Seconde Guerre mondiale. une telle persistance dans la négation des crises comme phénomène intrinsèque aux sociétés capitalistes constitue donc pour les chercheurs régulationnistes une source de perplexité et un constant étonnement. Le programme de travail proposé au Wiko portait précisément sur la mise en évidence des facteurs susceptibles d expliquer ce décalage croissant entre la sophistication des outils de l économiste et son incapacité à rendre compte de phénomènes majeurs affectant les sociétés la contemporation et co du chômage, la rupture de la croissance après 1973, l essor de nouveaux pays industrialisés et plus récemment, la succession de crises financières d abord en Amérique Latine, puis en Asie et finalement aux etats-unis. C était aussi une tentative pour mettre en ordre la masse de cours, articles, livres et recherches consultés et / ou réalisés depuis 1962, date à laquelle est né mon intérêt pour l économie. Or, dans un context académique classique, il n est pas aisé de procéder à une mise à distance méthodologique et épistémologique d un itinéraire intellectuel. L arrivée à Berlin le 1er octobre signed donc l ouverture d une période, tout à la fois en conti nuité et rupture, consacrée à la preparation d un ambitieux ouvrage, provisoirement intitulé “L économie, une science sociale”. Il s agissait d une critique de la culture mono-disciplinaire fort marquée chez les économistes. Le fait que le séjour à Berlin était le plus long qui m eut été proposé au cours de ma carrière, incitait à l optimisme: le but serait de repartir du Wiko avec l essentiel de l ouvrage projeté. La pression du temps propre au champ académique C était sans compter avec la continuité d un engagement dans une série de projets dont certains, entrepris de longue date, devaient être achevés conformément à un calendrier fixé paréd les comités de raction de revues, les éditeurs d ouvrages collectifs et les maisons 40 Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin yearbook 2010/2011

40 d édition. Ce fut le cas pour l ouvrage commencé à l été 2008 sur la crise financière contemporaine, dont la mise au point finale a accaparé beaucoup plus the efforts que prévu. De même, il était impossible de ne pas donner la priorité à la coordination d un ouvrage marquant la collaboration, depuis plus d une décennie, avec un réseau de chercheurs japonais et asiatiques. The program de recherche régulationniste concernant la diversité des capitalismes asiatiques se rappelait à mon attention au détriment de ce projet plus personnel et solitaire.The participation au Comité de Rédaction d une jeune et fragile revue la revue de la régulation apportait également son lot de demandes pressantes en matière d évaluation des articles et de participation aux choix collectifs en ce qui concerne l orientation de la revue et la sélection des articles . Il faut ajouter que, chaque semaine, le courrier électronique transmettait d alléchantes propositions de participation à des colloques, séminaires, numéros spéciaux de revues et d ouvrages collectifs sur les deux thèmes centraux de ma recherche. Ainsi, d une part les rencontres internationales sur la crise économique contemporaine se sont multipliées, d autre part l échec intellectuel mais pas institutionnel du paradigme en vigueur chez les macro-économistes a ouvert un espace sans précédent aux approches front alternatives, trop longtemps marginalisé de la profession. Comment décliner les invitations à des conférences où se rencontrent les dits «hétérodoxes» de toutes générations, venus du monde entier? Le projet, l espoir commun, n est autre que celui de fonder, puis imposer une nouvelle orthodoxie, plus respectueuse de la complexité et de l incertitude qui régissent les phénomènes économiques insérés dans la densité des relations sociales et politiques. Le program de recherche personnel se trouve enrichi par cette confrontation et simultanément il en est retardé, tant il est difficile de suivre la floraison de ces nouvelles recherches, d en méditer et assimiler les apports tout en continuant à creuser le tout petit sillon personnel. en effet, l élaboration d un program de recherche, porteur d un renouvellement de l économie politique, ne peut être qu une œuvre collective. Cette tension a été ressentie avec une intensité particulière lors de ce séjour au Wiko. Son relatif isolement geographique par rapport à l attraction et aux lumières de Berlin laissait à penser que s était reconstitué, à Grunewald, l équivalent d une abbaye ou d un monastère, exclusivement dédié à la concentration des fellows sur leur projet personnel et à leurs interactions avec la communauté des collègues. Hélas, les forces propres au champ académique se sont attachées à montrer que cette déconnexion était toute relative. Il faut en outre ajouter qu il est difficile de rester internal work reports 41