What is interfluve in a catchment area

Structure Structure V List of figures VII List of tables XII 1 Introduction and question 3 1.1 Soil erosion and sediment load in catchment areas 3 1.1.1 Runoff formation, soil erosion and sediment discharge 3 1.1.2 Winter situations 5 1.2 Modeling approaches 13 1.2.1 Models and model couplings 13 1.2. 2 Problems of the model application 17 1.3 Knowledge deficits and objectives 23 2 Study areas and methods 25 2.1 Schäfertal 25 2.1.1 Natural area 25 2.1.2 Methods 28 2.2 Lubazhinkha 31 2.2.1 Natural area 31 2.2.2 Methods 36 2.3 Data processing 38 3 Results and discussion of the monitoring in the catchment areas 41 3.1 Schäfertal 41 3.1.1 Formation of runoff 41 3.1.2 Discharge of matter during flood events 45 3.2 Lubazhinkha 54 3.2.1 Significance of snowmelt for the discharge of matter 54 3.2.2 Material dynamics during snowmelt 57 4 Model development 69 4.1 Objectives of the model modification and development 69 4.2 WASIM-AGNPS 70 4.2.1 Water balance model WASIM 70 4.2.2 Material transport model AGNPS 72 4.2.3 Interface WASIM-AGNPS 74 4.3 Modification of WASIM for winter Runoff formation 76 4.3.1 Basics 76 4.3.2 Data collection 77 4.3.3 Sensor selection 77 4.3.4 Results 79 4.3.5 Empirical model 82 4.3.6 Soil temperature submodule 83 4.3.7 Adaptation with data from the Lubazhinkha catchment area 85 4.4 Snowmelt erosion model (SMEM) 87 4.4.1 Groove profile 87 4.4.2 Soil erosion 90 4.4.3 Technical implementation 96 4.5 IWAN model system 97 4.5.1 SMEM-AGNPS interface 97 4.5.2 Graphical user interface 99 5 Model results and discussion 105 5.1 Schäfertal 105 5.1.1 Soil temperature 105 5.1.2 Hydrology 108 5.1.3 Snow melt erosion 113 5.1.4 Sediment load 120 5.2 Lubazhinkha 126 5.2.1 Hydrology 126 5.2.2 Snow melt erosion 133 5.2.3 Sediment load 137 6 Scenario calculations 143 6.1 Schäfertal climate scenarios 143 6.1.1 Scenario selection 143 6.1.2 Model results and discussion 148 6.2 Land use scenarios Lubazhinkha 158 6.2.1 Scenario selection 158 6.2.2 Model results and discussion 163 7 Conclusions 169 7.1 Catchment areas 169 7.2 IWAN model system 172 7.3 Scenarios 176 7.4 Research needs 178 8 Summary 179 9 Summary 189 10 Literature 199 Appendix 207 Abbreviations Model overview source code ( VBA)