Classes are capitalized

Upper and lower case in class. Two approaches to internal sentence writing in comparison

content

1 Introduction
1.1 Research on upper and lower case letters in students
1.2 The important discourse in upper and lower case didactics

2. Student problems with uppercase and lowercase letters outside of the sentence's uppercase

3. The word-type approach
3.1 The difficulties of the word type approach
3.2 The didactics of the word-type approach

4. The syntax-related approach in the sentence-internal capitalization
4.1 The attribute and extension test
4.2 The difficulties with the syntax-based approach
4.3 The didactics of the syntax-related approach

5. Solutions to the conflict between the two approaches

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Annex 1

Appendix 2

Appendix 3

1 Introduction

The following seminar paper deals with two didactic methods that are particularly suitable for teaching the sentence-internal uppercase and lowercase letters. In the following, the discourse of these two methods is presented as well as research on errors in upper and lower case. This form of introduction is important for a better understanding of the seminar paper and is the reason for its detail. Only then will further topics of the seminar paper be introduced.

1.1 Research on upper and lower case letters in students

Various studies have dealt with the mistakes of the students with the upper and lower case. Upper and lower case is very important in the area of ​​spelling errors. According to studies by Wolfgang Menzel on texts from second to tenth graders from 1985 and by Ina Karg on pupil texts from fifth and sixth graders, a quarter of all spelling errors are in upper and lower case. Menzel's study showed that 64% of the errors can be traced back to lower case instead of upper case and a comparatively few 36% to upper case instead of lower case (cf. Müller 2010, p. 71). It is particularly difficult to capitalize abstracts and substantiated verbs and adjectives (cf. Scheele 2006, p. 44 ff.). In her 2006 study, Veronika Scheele shows that only 10.2% misspellings were found in concrete, while 40.2% misspellings were found in abstracts (cf. Betzel 2015, p. 60). Concrete denotes objective nouns and abstracts non-objective nouns (cf. Gaebert 2012, p. 85). According to Röber 2011, an inventory of the orthographic area of ​​capitalization shows that from the 4th grade onwards, capitalization is the most error-prone area of ​​spelling in all school types. He states that successful learning is related to student characteristics, but that the content and method of teaching also play a role (cf. Röber 2011, p. 297).

1.2 The important discourse in upper and lower case didactics

The didactics of capitalization is the only area in orthography that is taught by formulating a uniform rule (cf. Röber 2011, p. 296 f.). In relation to the above-mentioned problem of the students with upper and lower case letters, a discourse arises in science about didactics, which is sparked by the following points of view. Proponents of the syntax-related approach are of the opinion that "when deciding on lower case letters, fourth graders obviously rely on the part of speech (verb, adjective) instead of the function of these words in the sentence as the core of the noun group" (cf. Valtin et al. 2003, p. 240) orientate. The word type-related learning approach cannot guarantee security in the writing and decision-making process. Rather, the syntactic function should be in the foreground in the learning process of capitalization (cf. Müller 2010, p. 71). Even today, the discussion about the didactics of capitalization is determined by the positions of categorization according to lexical words and the syntactic classification of the words (cf. Röber 2011, p. 305). Because to tie the rules of capitalization only to the noun is up for debate. Proponents of the syntax-related approach believe that “words of other parts of speech are also capitalized if they have the function of kernels of noun groups” (Röber 2011, p. 298).

In this seminar paper, the students' spelling problems, which have nothing to do with capitalization within the sentence, are first dealt with. Then the two communication methods, the syntax-related and the word type-related approach, which are particularly important with regard to the sentence-internal upper and lower case, are compared. Didactic examples are given here, the corresponding exercise sheets can be found in the appendix. Then the difficulties of the methods are explained. Due to the already mentioned discourse on didactic methodology, the hypothesis of this seminar paper is that the syntax-related approach is the more effective approach to teaching upper and lower case. The syntax-related approach is discussed in detail not only for this reason, but also because it is more complex than the word-type-related approach. In the course of the research, it also turned out that there is considerably more didactic material for the syntax-related approach in the literature. At the end of the seminar paper, an attempt is made to find a solution to the conflict between the two approaches. The working hypothesis is verified or falsified and a study on new learners is presented. In addition, a non-fiction book that combines both approaches is explained. Unfortunately, the didactic examples and the study can often only be cited by one author, which is related to the literature.

2. Student problems with uppercase and lowercase letters outside of the sentence's uppercase

There are different rules for capitalization in the German language, which make different demands on the students. The capitalization of a word at the beginning of a sentence is usually only a problem for pupils in elementary school (cf. Schründer-Lenzen 2009, p. 58). In this context, the teacher should teach that punctuation marks and capitalization of the following sentence are related. The pupils often teach themselves to capitalize proper names, especially in other subjects such as exploring. Capitalization of work titles is the subject of the graduating classes (cf. Augst et al. 2007, p. 159). Fixed additions, i.e. idioms (cf. duden.de: idiom) are best dealt with tacitly. The capitalization of you be taught. Because it is only from the 4th grade that the pupils can tell the difference between you and you perceive, the capitalization of the you can only be taught from this age onwards. Nouns also cause difficulties for the children. Substantivating should be taught if the article was internalized as a reference to a noun (cf. Augst et al. 2007, p. 159). Nouns are words that become a noun but are not originally, e.g. B. a substantiated adjective as the core: “Anna still has Big before "and a substantiated infinitive as the core:" Otto hates long Queue “(Duden die Grammatik 2009, p. 797). Proper names or the beginning of sentences and texts and their capitalization are therefore less of a problem for the students. The sentence-internal capitalization, on the other hand, leads to problems for the students (cf. Müller 2010, p. 69). The two didactic methods presented below will address the exact problems of capitalization within sentences: the word type-related approach and the syntax-related approach.

3. The word-type approach

In today's primary and secondary schools, the word-type-based approach is used in particular to teach (cf. Röber 2011, p. 309). In many school language books, the “rule-forming presentation of capitalization is almost exclusively defined as its connection to lexical words” (Röber 2011, p. 309). The sentence-internal capitalization is explained with the part of speech noun. Because of this approach, pupils know the ability to write articles and the ability to consume as a rule for determining nouns to be capitalized (cf. Müller 2010, p. 164).

3.1 The difficulties of the word type approach

As an example of how the word-type-related approach can be conveyed in didactic works, a rule from the Jojo-Sprachbuch 1996 is used here. “Name words have companions. Indefinite companions: one, one. Certain Companions: The One Who That “(Bauer et al. 1996: 22). The weaknesses of the article sample, which is used to determine the article ability of words by checking whether an article can be placed in front of them, also become clear here. Because the article sample and thus the reduction to an article capability in general can lead to over-generalization. These over-generalizations can lead to incorrect capitalization of words, as in the following example: " the yellow one Ball "(Röber 2011, p. 309). The rules of capitalization are therefore tied to the noun (cf. ibid., P. 308f).

3.2 The didactics of the word-type approach

The article sample is taught to convey the word type-related approach (cf. Schründer-Lenzen, p. 58). An example of the application of this approach in schools can be the worksheet "Upper and Lower Case" from Aduis-Verlag. For the first task, ask the children to form a sentence from three words and pay attention to the capitalization. It learns to recognize nouns, verbs and adjectives. In the second task, ask the children to form sentences from a snake and capitalize the correct words. This worksheet is more about tasks that serve to check knowledge that has already been learned. Because the students must already have definitions of parts of speech and a certain vocabulary. The worksheet can be found in Appendix 4.

Ossner 2010 has developed an exemplary curricular modeling of the word type-related approach. In a very small-step process in the form of a mixed classification, in which the individual features of the noun build on one another over the course of the school years, upper and lower case is conveyed (cf. Gaebert 2012, p. 126). The learning process takes place from the 2nd grade to the upper level, see Table 1 in the appendix. The curriculum begins with the definition of prototypical nouns in the form of an article (cf. Ossner 2010, p. 210). It is important that the article sample is not used indiscriminately. It should initially target the articles already present in the set and insert samples should only be applied later (cf. Augst et. Al. 2007, p. 159). In the 3rd grade there is also the fact that you can put an adjective in front of a noun. This is followed by the definition of nouns using abstracts, e.g. from emotional vocabulary, in the 4th grade and using predicatives such as "My bank is broke" (Gaebert 2012, p. 126) in the 5th and 6th grade. Complex proper names like “Der Allgemeine Deutsche Automobilclub” (ibid., P. 126) are dealt with here in the 7th and 8th grades. It is only in the upper level that one deals with the problems of word type-related regulation (cf. Ossner 2010, p. 210).

4. The syntax-related approach in the sentence-internal capitalization

The traditional word type-related approach poses didactic problems not only for supporters of the syntax-related approach. The didactic reduction and simplification lead to uncertainty among the students. Not only can you explain capitalization with nouns, you have to look at the entire syntax. The associated didactic approach is called the syntax-related approach. With the syntactic principle, the capitalization at the beginning of the sentence and text is easy to recognize. In the case of a sentence-internal capitalization, however, the position in the text of the word to be capitalized must first be recognized (cf. Müller 2010, p. 71f.). In order to determine whether a word is capitalized, the nominal group is recognized as a sentence member with the help of this approach (cf. Steets 2008, 235 f.). Nominal groups have a core that can be a noun, a noun or a pronoun (see Müller, pp. 71f.). An example of pronouns as the core is the following: " you almost eat everything “(Duden the grammar 2009: 797). Now it is necessary to determine whether the nominal group can be expanded, e.g. with an article or an attribute (see Müller 2010, p.71). Because an indication of capitalization is the ability to attribute the nominal core (cf. ibid. 2014, p. 2). There are various attributes such as genitive attributes: " Europe South. ”Another example is a noun phrase in the accusative that indicates a point in time:“ The session last Monday “(Duden the grammar 2009: 800f.).

4.1 The attribute and extension test

There are various methods for determining the nominal core, such as the article sample, the attribute test or the case sample (cf. Steets 2008, p. 236). The cognitive operators such as rearrange, extend and replace form the basis of the syntax-related approach. With the help of the attribute and extension sample, the students can apply the syntax-related approach (see Müller 2010, p. 164f.). With the extension sample, the pupils test whether words can be extended e.g. with adjectives (see Menzel 2016, p. 213). “The extension sample helps you to discover the core of a nominal group, which at the same time limits the part of the sentence to the right” (Müller 2010, p. 165). At the right edge of the nominal group is the nominal core, at the left edge the article (cf. ibid., P. 164f.). All parts of speech can take the position of the expandable kernel of noun groups. Nouns are always capitalized and are always the expandable core of a noun group (cf. ibid., P. 71). One advantage of these samples is that syntactically motivated capitalization can be conveyed through the students' own independent application (cf. Menzel 2016, p. 214). In the course of the attribute and extension test, one can distinguish the following extensions. Students can use these extensions to determine the case of a word.

"1. Extension of nominal cores by adjective attributes - that is, capitalization: I have a room. Extension: I have one little one Zimmer. "(Müller 2010, p. 73). The students learn that adjectival extensions have the following endings: -e, -en, -em, -er, -es (cf. ibid., P. 73). "2. Adverbial expansion of predicate parts - so no capitalization: My room is small and cozy. Extension: My room is quite small and very cozy. ”(Müller 2010, p. 73). "3. Adverbially used comparatives - so no capitalization: My room is smaller and cozier than that of my brother. ”(cf. ibid., p. 73). Here are the endings that have been learned. However, these do not lead to capitalization of the following word. A similar sentence without a comparative could make the difference clear to the students (cf. ibid. 2010, p. 73). "4. Nouns are cut out - so no capitalization: I have a small room, my brother has a large one. ”(Ibid., P. 74). Extension can be used to show students that great does not follow the attribute but has a capitalized reference word. The attribute is not capitalized (see ibid. P. 74). It is also important to convey to the learner that adjectives that are an extension are given an inflectional ending (cf. Menzel 2016, p. 213). At the end of the development process, the following decision-making aids can be formulated with the students: “If I am not sure whether a word is capitalized in a sentence, I ask myself: Can I put an extension in front of the word? Does the extension have the correct ending, namely -e, -en, -em, -er, -es? If I can answer both questions in the affirmative, the examined word is capitalized. ”(Müller 2010, p. 74).

4.2 The difficulties with the syntax-based approach

The pupils are particularly troubled by those words which form the nucleus of noun groups, although outside of the sentence they do not represent words with noun features. The following sentence is an example: “That green suits her particularly well. ”(Müller 2010, p. 70). It therefore shows that capitalization can only be decided in the context of sentences. To base this decision on the part of speech is not always expedient (cf. ibid., P. 70). In this context it also becomes apparent that it can be a problem for the pupils to determine which capitalized word an article refers to (cf. Mann 2002, p. 58).

One of the other difficulties of the syntax-related approach is that syntactic regulations are not fully taken into account when writing. This can be seen, for example, in terms of quantities.Quantities can be attributed, but there are only a few adjective attributes that can be used, e.g. "a big piece dark chocolate "(Müller 2010, p. 74). However, one can use these quantities as a reference to a noun (cf. Mann 2002, p. 60). In addition, preceding genitive attributes cannot be extended, e.g., Father's books ‘,, Peter's bicycle‘ . If adjectives and participles are used as nouns in idioms, e.g., 'all the best' or 'something special', they cannot be expanded attributively. The indefinite number word is the reason for the capitalization here. The extension can only be done with relative clauses, e.g., There is nothing new here that might interest you ‘. Fixed connections, e.g., cycling ‘,, accept‘, cannot be extended attributively either. Nevertheless, capitalization takes place here, this is probably due to the fact that the verb supplements are prototypical nouns. Connections that cannot be attributed, e.g., by and large ‘, or, essentially‘, are capitalized because the word type-related approach interprets the article capability here very broadly. In the case of the last two problems, the word type-related approach prevailed over the syntactic one. These are new exceptions to the rule that expandable cores are capitalized in the sentence. Violations of these exceptions should be met with tolerance and reference should be made to a process of language change (cf. Müller 2010, pp. 74f.).

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