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  • Energy from biomass: Wood-fueled sewage sludge drying plant; Energetic use of biomass using the example of a wood-fired sewage sludge drying plant. Planning, construction and first operational experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgtorf, J [Saarberg-Oekotechnik GmbH, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    A unique concept was developed for the drying plant of Biowaerme-Braeunlingen GmbH (BWB): The heat for drying sewage sludge is generated by a wood chip furnace with staggered grate, and the waste heat from plume condensation is fed into a district heating system supplying a neighboring commercial and trade center. (orig./SR) [German] For the drying plant of Biowaerme-Braeunlingen GmbH (BWB) a concept that is unique up to now has been developed: The heat required to dry the communal Klaerschlaemme of the district is generated by a woodchip heating plant with stepped grate firing and that during the condensation of the Waste heat from Brueden is used in a district heating network to supply the surrounding industrial area. (orig./SR)

  • Profitability aspects of combined power / heat plants based on the example of a gas turbine; Economic considerations of CHP systems using the example of a gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimek, W. [Thyssengas GmbH, Duisburg (Germany)

    1998-04-01

    The efficiency of a combined power / heat plant is treated in an example relating to a gas turbine. An important prior condition for optimum planning of a combined power / heat plant is assessment of the current position in addition to a demand analysis. Constituting a vital planning instrument for the process are systematic annual continuous curves in respect of electricity and heat. Aided by a PC software program it is possible, on the basis of a few key figures, to establish whether a detailed study is able to bring about any economical solution. In addition, a primary energy and emission balance sheet is compiled, illustrating the advantages to be gained from combined power / heat systems of relevance to the environment. A sensitivity analysis shows main influential factors exercised on the efficiency of the gas turbine project. As might be expected, the greatest influencing profitability comes from the electricity proceeds, the price of fuel and capital costs. Finally, different financing models for combined power / heat plants are discussed along with a price safeguarding method. (orig.) [German] The profitability of a CHP plant is explained using the example of a gas turbine. An important prerequisite for the optimal planning of a CHP plant is the inventory with needs analysis. A decisive planning instrument are the ordered annual duration curves for electricity and heat. With the help of a PC program, a few key data can be used to determine whether a detailed analysis could lead to an economic solution. In addition, a primary energy and emissions balance is drawn up, which illustrates the environmentally relevant advantages of combined heat and power. A sensitivity analysis shows the main influencing factors on the profitability of the gas turbine project. As expected, the electricity credit, the fuel price and the investment costs have the greatest influence on profitability. Be final

  • Simulation of coulomb friction for a double wishbone front suspension; Simulation of static and sliding friction using the example of a double wishbone front wheel suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanck, N.

    1995-02-01

    An exact method for the simulation of mechanical systems with one or more coulomb friction elements is described. The Coulomb law is extended to two- and three-dimensional friction elements. The differential equations of the system without friction are generated with the finite element program NASTRAN. Subsequently, friction is included and the simulation is performed in a FORTRAN program. Friction between two degrees of freedom is simulated by equating their accelerations and adding the friction forces on the right-hand side of the equations. The method is demonstrated for the left front wheel double wishbone suspension of the Mercedes-Benz S-class. Friction in the lower and upper ball joint is modeled by two three-dimensional elements. Time and frequency domain results of four simulation examples with harmonic excitation force are shown in fig. 2, 3, 4 and 5. (orig.) [German] An exact method for the computational simulation of mechanical systems with one or more Coulomb friction elements, which can be one, two or three-value (for example ball joints), is described. The differential equations of the frictionless system are generated with the FE program NASTRAN. The simulation of the system supplemented by friction elements takes place in a FORTRAN program developed in-house. The process is demonstrated using a harmoniously excited double wishbone front wheel suspension from Mercedes-Benz with two ball joints subject to friction. (orig.)

  • The portfolio as a contribution to the reflection of personal competence development in religious / pedagogical education. Opportunities for a new learning and assessment culture - using the example of a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander van Dellen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available “Competence orientation” in pedagogy education constitutes a central point within the draft laws formulated on the 12th of June 2013. These see the use of portfolios as playing a crucial part of religious instruction education. This is based on the expectation that portfolios act as continuous and helpful companions throughout the various educational phases and therefore benefit students ’reflections on individual competence development. Portfolios allow effective measures towards personal development as a professional educator to be taken. The format at hand, which was conceived as a case study at the Institute for Practical Theology (department catechetics, religious education studies and religious didactics at the Faculty of Catholic Theology at the University of Innsbruck, is intended to be used as a basis for a discussion on the benefits of a continuous portfolio as a reflection tool for students' personal competence development. The first step illustrates the genesis and structure of the portfolio concept (2, so that the second step can then outline the potentials held by this new culture of using portfolios as learning and assessment tools in religious instruction education (3. In the draft legislation on future teacher training passed by the Austrian parliament on June 12, 2013, competence orientation is a key issue of portfolios are increasingly playing a central role. So the hope of ver that the portfolio as a continuum in the different phases of religious / pedagogical education is a helpful instrument for students to reflect on their individual competence development. Thus, an effective measure of personal development can be set in professionalization for the teaching profession. In the present discussion, on the basis of a

  • Tests to assess the risk of fire; Examples of procedures for assessing a risk of fire and for interpreting results; 3.1: Characteristic values ​​of the combustion and overview of test methods for their determination; Identical to IEC 60695-3-1, 1982 edition

    CERN Document Server

    German institute for standardization. Berlin

    1986-01-01

    Tests to assess the risk of fire; Examples of procedures for assessing a risk of fire and for interpreting results; 3.1: Characteristic values ​​of the combustion and overview of test methods for their determination; Identical to IEC 60695-3-1, 1982 edition

  • Looking into the causes of deformation processes: The example of an industrial-scale turbine; Investigation of the causes of deformation processes using the example of a large turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeufer, A [Hanover Univ. (Germany). Geodetic Inst.

    1997-12-31

    While quasistatic and kinematic methods for analysis and interpretation of deformation processes reached technical maturity long ago, dynamic models are still in the early development phase. Starting from an outline of the current state of knowledge and a proposal on the definition `Dynamic models`, two fundamentally different dynamic model approaches are described and discussed, i.e. input-output models and state models. Input-output models are discussed in some detail, and the results of such a model when applied to investigations of the deformation characteristics of an industria-scale turbine are presented. (orig.) [German] While in the area of ​​the so-called quasi-static and kinematic process development for the analysis and interpretation of deformation processes only a few refinements are to be expected, the provision of practical dynamic models is still largely at the beginning of a promising development phase. Based on a brief overview of the current state of development and a proposal for the definition of `dynamic models`, two fundamentally different dynamic model approaches - the input-output models and state models - are described and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. After a more in-depth treatment of input-output models, the results of the application of such a model approach to investigate the deformation behavior of a large turbine follow. (orig.)

  • Looking into the causes of deformation processes: The example of an industrial-scale turbine; Investigation of the causes of deformation processes using the example of a large turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeufer, A. [Hanover Univ. (Germany). Geodetic Inst.

    1996-12-31

    While quasistatic and kinematic methods for analysis and interpretation of deformation processes reached technical maturity long ago, dynamic models are still in the early development phase. Starting from an outline of the current state of knowledge and a proposal on the definition `Dynamic models`, two fundamentally different dynamic model approaches are described and discussed, i.e. input-output models and state models. Input-output models are discussed in some detail, and the results of such a model when applied to investigations of the deformation characteristics of an industria-scale turbine are presented. (orig.) [German] While in the area of ​​the so-called quasi-static and kinematic process development for the analysis and interpretation of deformation processes only a few refinements are to be expected, the provision of practical dynamic models is still largely at the beginning of a promising development phase. Based on a brief overview of the current state of development and a proposal for the definition of `dynamic models`, two fundamentally different dynamic model approaches - the input-output models and state models - are described and discussed with regard to their advantages and disadvantages. After a more in-depth treatment of input-output models, the results of the application of such a model approach to investigate the deformation behavior of a large turbine follow. (orig.)

  • Analysis of potential energy saving strategies in a Bangkok school building. With CD-ROM; Analysis of energy saving potential using the example of a school in Bangkok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temming, H.V.

    2000-05-01

    In cooperation with the Society for Technical Cooperation GTZ, a school building in Thailand was selected for an analysis of potentials for energy saving. The selected school was the New International School of Thailand (NIST) in Bangkok. Energy-relevant data were acquired by measurements, and solutions for more efficient energy supply were developed. Recommendations were made on this basis. This dissertation is also available on CD-ROM. [German] In cooperation with the Society for Technical Cooperation GTZ, a Thai school, the New International School of Thailand (NIST) in Bangkok, was selected as an example. The various energetic measurements were carried out on this object. These were evaluated as required. On the basis of the results possible solutions for a more efficient energy supply of the school were constructed and these alternatives were evaluated as described above, from which corresponding recommendations result. The structure of this work is now as follows: After the most important parameters of Thailand and the object of investigation are presented in a first step, this is followed by the presentation of various technical alternatives for the generation of cold, since here a focus is set for possible energy savings becomes. Subsequently, some of the calculation methods used in the work for energetic or economic relationships as well as a detailed description of the energetic 1st situation of the object under investigation are presented. Building on this, the presentation of the various energy-saving potentials through technical and behavior-induced optimization measures now follows. This work ends with the evaluation of all identified potentials and an overall conclusion from the investigation. (This diploma thesis is also available in the form of a CD-ROM.) (Orig./AKF)

  • Human biological monitoring as demonstrated by means of a heavy-metal polluted abandoned site; Human biomonitoring using the example of a heavy metal contaminant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elison, M; Schulte-Hostede, S [GSF Research Center for Environment and Health Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. For Ecological Chemistry

    1998-12-31

    Models for estimating exposure permit to make a rough assessment of the risk emanating from a contaminated area. But it must not be overlooked that such models are fraught with considerable weaknesses.- In studies such as the one described, concerned citizens should additionally be examined in order to obtain supplementary information and to aid interpretation. Such human biological monitoring makes sense only if the persons in question actually live in the contaminated areas, so that a higher exposure may reasonably be expected. Human biological monitoring is to help assess the inner exposure of human beings to pollutants emanating from the contaminated area. (orig./SR) [German] With the help of models for exposure assessment, one is able to carry out an orienting assessment of the risk emanating from a contaminated area according to the procedures outlined above. However, it must be taken into account that such models are burdened with considerable weaknesses. As a supplement and aid to interpretation, investigations such as the one presented here must also be carried out on the affected burgers. This human biomonitoring only makes sense where it is ensured that the people there actually live on contaminated areas and thus an increased exposure to the people can be assumed. Human biomonitoring is intended to make it possible to assess the internal exposure of humans to pollutants that come from the contaminated area. (orig./SR)

  • Human biological monitoring as demonstrated by means of a heavy-metal polluted abandoned site; Human biomonitoring using the example of a heavy metal contaminant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elison, M .; Schulte-Hostede, S. [GSF Research Center for Environment and Health Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. For Ecological Chemistry

    1997-12-31

    Models for estimating exposure permit to make a rough assessment of the risk emanating from a contaminated area. But it must not be overlooked that such models are fraught with considerable weaknesses.- In studies such as the one described, concerned citizens should additionally be examined in order to obtain supplementary information and to aid interpretation. Such human biological monitoring makes sense only if the persons in question actually live in the contaminated areas, so that a higher exposure may reasonably be expected. Human biological monitoring is to help assess the inner exposure of human beings to pollutants emanating from the contaminated area. (orig./SR) [German] With the help of models for exposure assessment, one is able to carry out an orienting assessment of the risk emanating from a contaminated area according to the procedures outlined above. However, it must be taken into account that such models are burdened with considerable weaknesses. As a supplement and aid to interpretation, investigations such as the one presented here must also be carried out on the affected burgers. This human biomonitoring only makes sense where it is ensured that the people there actually live on contaminated areas and thus an increased exposure to the people can be assumed. Human biomonitoring is intended to make it possible to assess the internal exposure of humans to pollutants that come from the contaminated area. (orig./SR)

  • THE CHANGE OF LIFE OF A FAIRY TALE TRANSLATION UNDER PHRASEOLOGICAL ASPECT: EXAMPLE OF GRIMMS 'FAIRY TALE "HANS IM GLÜCK"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasilda concern

    2013-11-01

    the semantic impact of translations of one of the most frequently read type of literature. Originality / applicability: The research serves as an instrument to identify the transmission of cultural patterns and related linguistic expressions and images by which translations are shaping our linguistic consciousness. SUMMARY The author is interested in the cultural and linguistic influence of Grimm's fairy tales and their translations on the Slovene language and culture. In her contribution to the diachronic consideration of various Slovenian translations of phraseologisms in the fairy tale Hans im Glück (KHM 83), she addressed the question of the appropriateness of the translations, the strategy of the respective translator, the current usage and the awareness of the phraseologisms that may have been newly introduced by the translation and the linguistic development of the individual fixed word combinations and considers whether the last translation was also the best. "The investigation was only exemplary, since the examples included are by no means a representative set. Your conclusion is that the earlier fairy tale translations were surprisingly good. The translators developed a high level of language awareness in the 19th and 20th centuries by avoiding loan translations if only possible. The last (complete translation from 1993 by Polonca Kovač is a rather original translation).The translator wanted to show her loyalty to the original, especially at the linguistic level, by translating many things verbatim, using loan translations and loan phrases as well as outdated and lesser-known dialectal expressions, which represent certain deviations from the current recommendations made by translation scholars.

  • Developing a model system for simulation of changes induced by more effective circular flow concepts in industry and energy management. Systems technology and economic modeling aspects shown with the example of the materials flow in the paper industry; Development of a model system to simulate the energy management and structural changes in a reinforced circular economy. System-technical and economic modeling using the example of the material flow 'paper'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathani, C.

    2000-02-01

    The impacts of a long-term change from our present industrial society to an economy based on circular flow concepts approaching the characteristics of the concept of sustainable development have to be taken into account in macroeconomic modeling as well, or else there is no appropriate basis for examination and assessment of the effects of various resource management policy options on the economy. One possible methodological approach is to link single, process-oriented models of sectors of the industry with input-output models and macroeconomic models. This study presents an approach using as an example the pulp and paper industry of Germany, covering the period from 1995 until 2020. The results are found to improve the methodological perspective between the process models and the MIS model of the family of IKARUS models and also offer an additional advantage in that they may serve as a data source for other input-output models and macroeconomic modeling. (orig./CB) [German] These influences of a long-term change from today's industrial society to a circular economy with characteristics of sustainable development must also be found in the structures of macroeconomic models in order to be able to adequately examine the effects of various resource policy options on the economy. One methodical way to accomplish this task is to link individual process-oriented industry models with input-output models and macroeconomic models. The present report aims to contribute a building block to this, using the example of the pulp and paper industry for the Federal Republic of Germany for the period 1995-2020. These results not only improve the methodological perspective between the process models and the MIS model of the IKARUS model family, but can also be used as a source of experience and data for other input-output models and macroeconomic models. (orig.)

  • Farmers as energy producers? Conditions for an ecological modernization of the agriculture using generation of biogas as an example; Farmers as Energy Farmers? Conditions for an ecological modernization of agriculture using the example of biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trojecka, Anetta Ewa

    2007-07-01

    Technology designed. They can be integrated into regional and local circuits - with positive effects for nature and the environment. However, these ecological properties of biogas technology are now being lost due to their focus on maximum output. The starting point of the consideration is the theory of an ecological modernization of society, which is specifically transferred to agriculture. The connection between modernity and ecology is posed as a central question of the future of agriculture and rural areas. The expansion of the concept of rationalization to include ethical and normative questions of environmental and nature protection represents a challenge for modern farmers. The contradicting demands that farmers had to face - economic efficiency on the one hand, ecological requirements on the other - had contributed to the crisis in the state of consciousness of agrarian people . A typology of the ecologically modern farmer is used for the subsequent analysis of groups of energy farmers that have been identified in empirical studies. In terms of an ecological reform of agriculture, the group of people switching stands out. This includes those biogas plant operators who introduce ecological innovations for long-term economic advantages and who are thus strengthened in their new social role as resource managers. The question arises as to how these farmers should be encouraged in their contribution to the development of decentralized energy generation. (orig.)

  • Taiwan's multi-ethnic society and the post-colonial situation of the indigenous people using the example of their contemporary rituals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the phenomenon of postcolonial identity construction is traced using the example of the restoration and reinterpretation of the ritual traditions of Taiwan's indigenous people. It is argued that Taiwan's society as a whole is now in a phase of post-colonial ident ...

  • Measurement of the respiratory displacement of intra-abdominal organs using the example of the liver under mechanical ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Olbrich, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to quantify the movement of intraabominal organs using the example of the liver under the conditions of mechanical ventilation. A measuring method with the help of an electromagnetic tracking system was newly developed for this purpose in animal experiments. The measurement data were then validated with the help of an exploratory data analysis and a simple model was developed that enables the virtual compensation of the respiratory displacement. In addition, a practical application ...

  • Sergej A. Esenin's cycle of poems Ljubov 'chuligana (1923). Example of a structural analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ulbrecht, Siegfried

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 1 (2007), p. 13-19 ISSN 0037-6736 Institutional research plan: CEZ: AV0Z90920516 Keywords: Esenin Sergej * lyric cycle * Russian poetry Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  • Physcia aipolioides - an example of an invasive lichen or an underestimated spread?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lisická, E .; Lackovičová, A .; Liška, Jiří; Lökös, L .; Lisický, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2008), p. 303-318 ISSN N R&D Projects: GA AV ČR (CZ) IAA600050712 Institutional research plan: CEZ: AV0Z60050516 Keywords: lichen ized Ascomycetes * Slovakia * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  • Ideas for a literary sociology of the Internet. With a blogotop analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peer Trilcke

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The essay outlines and exemplifies the possibilities of a literary sociology of the Internet and in this context pleads for an empiricalization of research on this rapidly growing, but so far only superficially described field of communication about literature. For this purpose, literary Internet Studies and its literary-sociological sub-area are located within the general digital humanities. As an example of a relational-empirical sociology of literature of the Internet, the first results of the analysis of a so-called book blogotope are presented, on the basis of which some mechanisms of secondary literary communication, although not representative, can be discussed as examples.

  • Successful learning in a blended learning scenario in comparison with face-to-face instruction - illustrated by the example of the training of medical technical assistants specializing in radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hohenberg, Gregor

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Purpose: This article presents partial results of an evaluation study which compared a three-year blended learning scenario with traditional face-to-face training for medical technical assistants specializing in radiology. Methods: The blended learning approach investigated here is based on an individual tutoring approach, i.e. students work on the necessary training units during self-learning periods, while a tutor is available at all times via the Internet. Following the theory of constructivism, the tutor should see him- or herself as a coach supporting the learner working on the individual training units. As the Saarland University Hospital offers both face-to-face training and the blended learning course, it was possible to perform direct comparative tests. Results: On the basis of the final state examination results, it could be shown that the participants of the blended learning course achieved equivalent or slightly better exam results. Conclusion: The positive results of the blended learning participants gain increased significance against the backdrop of the demographic data of both groups of participants: with an average age of 43 (median: 43, the blended learning participants show a significantly higher life experience compared to the face-to-face training participants, who had an average age of 28 (median: 25. That shows that the blended learning method is a good method to be used by people working in radiology. [german] Objective: This article presents partial results of a Evaluation study, the aim of which is to compare a three-year blended learning scenario with classic face-to-face training for medical-technical assistants specializing in radiology. Method: The blended learning approach examined here is based on an individual support approach, ie while the participants are in the Self-study phases that work on the teaching units are available at any time via the Internet

  • Development and testing of a log file-based metric for the analysis of website entries using the example of an academic university website

    OpenAIRE

    Mayr, Philipp

    2004-01-01

    Web log files record user transactions on web servers and, due to their scope, properties and potential, offer an excellent field of investigation for today's information and online behavioral studies. The empirical, exploratory study from the areas of web mining, webometrics and log file analysis presents new aspects and analysis options for log data. To this end, the thesis develops and tests a quantitative, non-reactive measurement method ...