What creature is an ophidiophobe afraid of?

A disease when you are scared of everything. The list of people's most common phobias will inexorably expand

Fear and fear are usually completely unfounded. But they have a growing character. Gradually, fear and panic seize the person and occupy all of their thoughts.

Spatial fear has both somatic and cognitive symptoms.

Scientists have found that 80% of the population are afraid of rooms. However, for some this is a little fear in the subconscious, while for others it takes on a psychopathic character and develops into a phobia.

Situational (specific) phobias

This is usually a fear of certain objects or situations.

Certain phobias usually consist of certain panic triggers such as spiders, snakes, mice, driving in elevators or flying on an airplane. These fears develop in childhood and usually go away with age (e.g. fear of the dark).

If the anxiety persists throughout adult life, treatment is the only solution to get rid of the phobia. These fears can prevent a person from leading a normal life, depending on how often a person faces the source of their phobia.

The group "Obsessive Fear" - the fear of different spaces and movements in them

This group includes:
  • - Fear of limited space. Psychopathological syndrome related to panic from the thought of four walls. Often in prisoners, miners, people who survived the house collapse and incarceration under the rubble. Quite a common phobia. It occurs in the female population up to 25% and in the male up to 15%.
  • Agoraphobia is a fear of open spaces. With strong currents, the individual cannot work and live alone, he voluntarily locks himself in the apartment like in a cage and does not leave it. If you do have to go out anyway, it leads to severe panic attacks. It can appear after an attack by robbers on the street, traffic accidents, rape.
  • Gypsophobia is an obsessive horror of height and depth. A person's normal state - you can fall, and the downs - you can drown. But there is a big difference between caution and pathological fear. In severe cases, you cannot even climb to the second floor, resulting in a severe panic attack. It manifests itself in drowning people who fell into an air hole on an airplane and fell from a tall tree.
  • Amaxophobia - Fear of traveling on public transport. It manifests itself in people who have an accident, feel uncomfortable on a crowded bus, etc. It manifests itself in a panic attack, even if just thinking that one needs to get on the transport. Such people move exclusively on foot.

Social phobias

Fears associated with other people or social situations are characterized by fear, fear of shame, or a feeling of humiliation from scrutiny by other people.

An example of such phobias could be, for example, giving public speech (for two or more listeners) and even intimacy.

People with such phobias tend to avoid situations that they fear internally.

Group of sociophobia - fears associated with the presence of other people in society

Social phobias are very common. A happy person is self-sufficient. He doesn't have to prove anything to anyone.

Sociopaths cannot achieve harmony with the outside world precisely because of a lack of harmony with society. Uncontrolled anxiety attacks caused by a society of humans are intrusive.

Sociophibia is first and foremost a fear of human society, and secondly, it is a fear of actions in society, an individual is afraid of doing something and causing negative judgment from the outside.

The most common types of sociophobia:

  • Erythrophobia - fear of redness in people. In serious illness, a person stops going outside because there are people everywhere and blushing becomes the worst nightmare.
  • Demophobia is a fear of crowds. Everyone lives in society and in crowds on the street, it is a common occurrence, especially at rush hour. But for some people this does not cause emotions, for others there are anxiety states that can develop into a phobia.
  • . A phobia arises from fear of responsibility for one's own actions. If he does any work, he will panic that he will not succeed. In severe cases, you can become disabled.
  • Inability to end a relationship. It's like a suitcase with no handles, it's hard to carry, and it's worse to get rid of. People endure anything just so they don't break off the relationship. This is not a healthy relationship. Doctors classify them as a phobia class.
  • Fear of doing something in the presence of strangers. The roots often come from childhood when the child was often told that they are a loser and that they will not succeed. Cultivating these words in your head can lead to a paranoid phobia, and a person will only take action if left alone.
  • Inability to meet in a crowded place. It often happens in people, in dreams a person is already drinking coffee with a stranger / stranger, and in fact, he cannot even get up from a chair to get up.
  • Autophobia is a fear of loneliness. All people are afraid of being left alone, but within the bounds of reason. People suffering from autophobia cannot tolerate even temporary loneliness. Such a phobia can arise from betrayal, sole incarceration in a cell, etc.
  • Fear of exams. The scourge of modern society, the student's psyche, blocks all external stimuli because it cannot cope with the burden. As a result, a block and the word test are put into my head, and the preparation causes real horror.
  • Fear of hiccups or vomiting in a public place. It develops when this happens to him or when he witnesses when society reacts with laughter at the same time, then a phobia can develop and a person will stop going out in public places.
  • Demophobia is a fear of a large crowd. In a crowd, people develop a panic attack and find it difficult to breathe. May occur during a rush in the subway or riot on the street.
  • Kairophobia - fear of unknown places. An individual cannot force himself to locate himself in an unfamiliar space and even to think about his location.
  • Rabbophobia - fear of punishment. It develops from childhood, it seems to a person that punishment awaits him for each of his actions. In this case, he is afraid of doing anything at all.
  • Peniophobia is a fear of poverty. Even if a person lives in prosperity but has once been short of money, a paranoia of poverty can develop.


The group also has quite strange phobias:
  • Allodoxophobia is the fear of someone else's opinion. Most likely, it arises when at some point someone else's opinion humiliates or offends a person so much that a phobia develops.
  • Iremophobia is a fear of silence. The patient cannot be silent for a minute.
  • Bromophobia - fear of sweat. A person is afraid of sweating in public, and the further the disease sets in, the less publicly they appear because of their horror.
  • Atazagoraphobia is the fear that they will forget you. Characteristic of people in old age. Older people experience paranoid fears. Loneliness seems like their worst nightmare.
  • Gerontophobia - fear of old people and fear of growing old. Also typical for the elderly. They are afraid to see older people (they symbolize their own aging).
  • Kleptophobia is the fear of thieves. It usually affects those who have ever been robbed. Or watched it.

A group of nosophobia - obsessive fears of getting sick or dirty

Health experiences are a matter of course for everyone, but when they turn into absurdity, a phobia begins. A man is afraid of everything and everyone. Serious illnesses that are difficult to treat and often cause death are selected as the subject of fear.

In all manifestations of nosophobia, people are very afraid of contracting one of the diseases. In rare cases several:

  • . It is considered one of the worst.
  • Cardiophobia is a fear of heart disease. A person is constantly looking for a symptom and trying to be treated.
  • Heart attack - Fear of having a heart attack or stroke. With a slight tingling sensation on the left side, the person panics and thinks they are developing a heart attack.
  • Lissophobia - Fear of losing your mind.
  • Syphilophobia - Fear of syphilis.
  • Carcinophobia - fear of cancer.

Compulsive Anxiety Group - Fear of causing harm to yourself or loved ones

Constantly disturbing thoughts, images, changes in behavior. A person may be afraid of outbursts of anger to which they are exposed.
With such mental disorders, it is difficult for a person to live in society and it takes most of the time to control his or her thoughts.
  • Fear of suicide. Depressed people, who often think of suicide, fear themselves and realize that they can act beyond repair.
  • Fear of killing or hurting loved ones. A person who has survived a murder or health injury they witnessed may begin to fear a recurrence of the situation.
  • - fear of pollution. A person suffering from this phobia has a pathological fear of touching objects and other people. Obsessive thoughts of contracting a terrible disease or polluting themselves frighten them.

A group of "opposing" fears - fear of doing something that contradicts moral and ethical standards

  • Patients are critical of themselves and their neuroses. Most of the time the patient understands the baselessness of his fears, but cannot do anything with himself.
"Contrasting" fears are completely unfounded and not justified:
  • Fear of public profanity. It can develop in a person who was raised in a family where everyone swore profanity. And it is so uncomfortable to hear that he gives himself a vow never to use bad language. But he is afraid that these words will break out against his will.

Phobophobia group - a person is afraid of all phobias

Types of fears, phobias of a person include more than 500 items.

No one will ever be able to say exactly how a person's psyche will behave in a certain situation when they are panic about someone or something.

Phobia is called an increased fear of something. It can be an object, a situation, or an action. Otherwise, a phobia can be called obsessive fear. It is particularly difficult in a certain situation and cannot be explained. This condition greatly complicates a person's life, causes some discomfort, and changes personality. Phobia (comes from the Greek "phobos", which means "fear") - a strong, persistent, obsessive fear. In certain situations that shouldn't cause it, a person becomes very anxious. This alarm does not provide a complete logical explanation. This is not the fear a person feels when something really terrible happens (for example, aiming a machine gun at them). A person understands that fear is stupid, but there is nothing they can do about it.

Types of phobias - basic list

Phobias are more likely to occur in impressionable, emotional people with a rich imagination. In this case there is a term - psychological phobias. Such a person finds himself in a certain situation, and in his mind pictures appear worse than the others. He experiences these imaginary situations as if they were actually happening. A person does not understand why he begins to be afraid of something. All phobias can be divided into the following groups:

Tell me, which of these people like to go to the dentist? Few panic fear and aversion to this doctor is shown by patients with odontiatophobia. However, this is one of the dentist's harmless fears. What other phobias are there:

This is not an exhaustive list of phobias encountered in a doctor's office. Even so, it gives us the opportunity to understand that obsessive fear can arise with any object or action.

Symptoms of a phobia

The main sign is rejection or a desire to avoid the situation that is actually causing a phobia. In addition, obsessive-compulsive anxiety can have other symptoms. In such patients one can observe:

  • Tachycardia is a rapid heartbeat. Patients often complain that their heart is about to jump out of their chests.
  • Choking sensation, lump in throat, nothing to breathe.
  • Feeling numb, weak, unconscious, the body does not obey.
  • Great fear and horror of the subject, which provokes a phobia.
  • Tremble in the body.
  • Cold sticky sweat.
  • Stool disorder, vomiting, abdominal pain.

Causes of the disease

There isn't a single reason that causes phobias. Most of the time, all of our fears begin in childhood. The cause of phobia is often ne negative Exercises that a person experienced in childhood. A lot goes by with age and people don't even remember it. But some fear comes with age. But all phobias arise after situations that were uncomfortable and resulted in a painful experience. The psychology of phobia is such that in a person's subconscious the connection between what is causing fear and the emotions a person has been experiencing is shifted. It is believed that stress can trigger the development of a phobia in a person in whom parents have inherited a tendency to develop phobias.

Sensitive and emotional people are more prone to phobias. Even people with a very rich imagination are prone to this disease. After all, they find it difficult to distinguish between imaginary and real danger. Yes, and it is difficult to resist the feeling of fear, because such patients are afraid of what is actually not.

There are various theories for the development of the disease, although the causes of phobias are not fully understood.

  • Inheritance burden. Such a disease suffers from one of the parents and was transmitted to the child.
  • Highly developed instinct for self-preservation - a person begins to feel fear even in situations where they are actually not dangerous.
  • In the past, a person has had a stressful situation (in childhood, during life).

Phobias in children

For children, phobias are the same at any age. Almost 95% of children are afraid. Sometimes this condition is considered normal for babies.

  • Up to 2 years old - fear of strangers, loud noises, separation from mother.
  • Up to 6 years old - fear of dark, strange noises, monsters.
  • Up to 12 years old - fear of having a child, getting sick, dying.

If such fears do not violate the normal course of life of the baby, are not excessive, do not harm health, then over time they will pass. Medical care is not required here. Parents and their support will have more influence.

Treatment of phobias and fears

Phobias or fears are common in our daily life and cause discomfort. For example, if a person is a teacher in school and has some kind of social phobia, it will be very difficult to work in the profession. Also, a person who is afraid of blood cannot work as a surgeon. But he can work as a psychiatrist or psychologist, the work of which is not related to the type of blood. If a phobia doesn't interfere with everyday life, it doesn't cause fear. Or a person is trying to avoid situations that cause fear.

Regardless, in simple cases, phobias are very rarely cured spontaneously. In difficult cases, only a professional will help get rid of them. It requires comprehensive treatment of the phobia, it is carried out by psychotherapists. Diet and daily routine are important; drug, psychotherapeutic and physiotherapeutic treatment methods are used.

Psychiatric help is needed in the treatment of phobias and anxieties in the following situations:

  • The patient avoids certain places and situations due to illness.
  • Fear is unreasonable and excessive, causing fear and panic.
  • This condition causes significant discomfort and lasts more than six months.

The doctor diagnoses phobia based on the patient's examination and communication, distinguishing it from other mental illnesses. Then prescribe treatment. In psychotherapy, constant reflection is carried out, the experience of situations that cause a phobia. After psychotherapy, a person begins to understand why they are actually experiencing this condition. The medication usually prescribes tranquilizers. They are especially effective in situations where but it can arise and it has to be overcome somehow. For example when flying.

How can you help yourself? There are several strategies you can use:

  • Understand your condition, its possible causes. And know that a phobia can be cured. Try to question fearful thoughts.
  • Different methods of relaxation and deep breathing are the antidotes to anxiety, restlessness and anxiety. Eventually, if they are used regularly, a person will develop the ability to calm down quickly.

Every person has a weak point - something that makes them nervous, anxious and fearful. These or other fears and phobias are inherent in everyone, although at times they may seem absurd, strange and funny to others. What are people most afraid of? What phobias are there and what makes them different from ordinary fear?

Phobias and Fears: is there a Difference?

Fear is an important part of the instinct for survival. It makes a person perceive and avoid danger. Healthy fear ensures the safety of the species, it must not get near the wild animal, calmly roam over a deep cliff, swim too far from the coast. Fear of something is the norm unless it drives a person captive to irrationality.

And in this case, phobias enter the arena. They are causeless and unreasonable fears that are characterized by obsession, high levels of intensity, and uncontrollability. Human phobias have little relation to reality because they fear a not really dangerous situation (a certain number of insects, bridges, forests, etc.). Such fears are not part of the survival instinct and are considered a disorder.

Important Phobias: Karwasarsky Classification List

Any attempt to group all phobias according to certain criteria will fail because it is very difficult to account for every aspect of pathological fear. However, classifications persist and it is recommended that you familiarize yourself with them in order to understand the nature of phobic disorders.

Types of phobiasTypical examples
Associated with the fear of the space and the movement of people in it.
  1. Amaxophobia is a fear of public transport.
  2. Claustrophobia - Fear of closed, limited spaces.
  3. Agoraphobia is a fear of open spaces and crowds.
  4. Gypsophobia - Fear of heights and heights.
Social, related to being in society and getting a rating from it.
  1. Anthropophobia is a fear of people in which a person purposely avoids social contact and crowds.
  2. Ereitophobia - Fear of blushing.
  3. Autophobia is a fear of loneliness.
  4. Peyraphobia - Fear of the stage and public speaking.
  5. Logophobia is the fear of speaking to people in general or to a group of people.
  6. Misogyny is a fear of women.
  7. Venustrafobia is a fear of beautiful women.
  8. Androphobia is the fear of men.
  9. Philophobia is a fear of love.
  10. Cainophobia is a fear of new situations and acquaintances.
Associated with the risk of getting sick or receiving something (nosophobia).
  1. Carcinophobia is a fear of cancer.
  2. Cardiophobia is a fear of diseases affecting the cardiovascular system.
  3. Lissophobia is a fear of madness.
  4. Heart attack - fear of heart attack.
  5. Syphilophobia is a fear of syphilis.
Arises from the natural fear of death.
  1. Thanatophobia is a general fear of death.
  2. Taphophobia is the fear of being buried alive.
Influencing the intimate sphere in relation to sex.
  1. Onanophobia is a fear of complacency and the consequences of masturbation.
  2. Coitophobia - fear of sex.
  3. Tocophobia is a fear of pregnancy and childbirth.
Out of the fear of harming yourself or others.
  1. Misophobia - Fear of pollution or infection, which leads to the fact that surrounding objects can no longer be touched.
  2. Fear of suicide.
  3. Fear of harming or killing others.
  4. Calibration mophobia - fear of sharp objects.
Appearing for fear of committing an inappropriate act.
  1. Afraid of doing something obscene in public.
  2. Afraid of cursing obscenely in a public place.
Secondary fears develop out of fear of a phobia.Phobophobia - fear of fear, fear of recurrence of panic attacks and anxiety.

The Karwasarsky classification is considered to be the main classification, but there are other subdivisions of phobias.

What are phobias by the number of objects of fear

The human psyche has practically unlimited resources. And you cannot be afraid of one object, but of several. Differentiate by this criterion:

  1. Monophobia when a person fears something.
  2. Polyphobia, in which there are more than two objects of pathological fear.

For example, if a woman is terrified of spiders, she will suffer from monophobia. However, when this fear is compounded by fear of intimacy, we speak of polyphobia.

The more objects affected by fear, the more limited the patient's life. Avoiding one thing can be easy. With several simultaneous phobias, it becomes almost impossible to build a full-fledged comfortable life, since the safety zone becomes too small.

Phobias: what are - primary and secondary disorders

Primary phobia is the main cause that appeared first. For example, a person has a fear of heights (acrophobia). After a while, the area of ​​influence of fear expands: other related disorders join the existing phobia. Then they talk about secondary phobias. In this example, the fear of flying can also develop.

Without therapy, the situation can get even more complicated. There won't be anything strange about the phobia gradually spreading to all vehicles, that is, cars, trolleybuses, buses, trams, and subways will be "banned". Over time, spatial phobias (claustrophobia or agoraphobia) may worsen and fear of death (thanatophobia) may develop.

A large number of phobic disorders act as triggers for neurosis, psychosis, and depression.

The most common types of human phobias and their meanings

List a peculiar top 10 most common human fears. This list includes:

  1. Arachnophobia - fear of spiders. A kind of zoophobia (fear of animals).
  2. Acrophobia is a fear of heights. Limits the ascent: There is a fear of going into the mountains, climbing stairs and standing on a stool. In some cases, the phobia is aggravated by the compulsive desire to fall from a great height, even if the person concerned has no fundamental suicidal tendencies.
  3. Claustrophobia is the fear of confined spaces. It doesn't allow you to be comfortably in enclosed spaces (especially if they don't have windows), elevators, caves, tunnels, and sometimes even cars. Fear is associated with the fact that a person feels trapped that is impossible to get out of.
  4. Aerophobia - fear of flying in airplanes. Many try to "suppress" the phobia by taking sedatives or drinking alcohol. Others prefer to extend travel time by car, train, or bus, even if air travel is a safer mode of transport.
  5. Necrophobia - fear of the dead and burial attributes. In some cases, the fear extends to the corpses of animals. Sometimes a phobia worsens when you see the relevant image in a movie or photo on the Internet.
  6. Nythophobia is the fear of the dark. It mainly develops in childhood under the influence of violent imagination, feelings of abandonment and insecurity. Can persist until adulthood. Many hide nidophobia and shy away from their "childish" fears.
  7. Ophidiophobia - fear of snakes. Often times, panic fear turns into an obsessive disapproval of zoos, campsites, pet stores, forests, and other places where you can see a reptile.
  8. Teethophobia is a fear of dental treatment. The reasons for the fear are obvious, but the dentist refuses to see a doctor even if there is no place to restrain himself. He understands that pain, injections, and discomfort are not as bad as losing teeth, but he fails to overcome himself.
  9. Cinema phobia is the fear of dogs. A person does not experience aggression towards animals and does not try to harm them. But he cannot cope with himself and panics at the sight of a dog. Interestingly, cinophobia is common in people who have never had negative experiences with animals.
  10. Hemophobia is a fear of blood. Fear is accompanied by a feeling of horror at the sight of open wounds, deep cuts and blood samples for analysis. Some people lose consciousness or vomit.

Of course, the presence of a particular phobia in the top 10 doesn't mean that a person will encounter it. It is possible that he will have a different "fate". Phobic disorders occur and each run according to an individual scheme, which is why it makes no special sense to orientate yourself on the statistics.

Funny Human Phobias: List of Weirdest Disorders

For a man, his fear hardly seems cheerful: a phobia is a serious problem that affects life. But from the outside it can be fun to watch adults fear:

  • lack of a cell phone (nomophobia);
  • other people's views (scopophobia);
  • swallowing (phagophobia);
  • dances (chorophobia);
  • everything new (neophobia);
  • piling of holes (tripophobia);
  • washing (ablutophobia);
  • hair (trichophobia);
  • money (chromatophobia);
  • bald (peladophobia);
  • sitting (cathisophobia);
  • work (ergophobia);
  • buttons (kumpunofobiya);
  • turning into a bird (avid phobia);
  • cooking food (Magherocophobia);
  • having a conversation (deipnophobia);
  • look up (anablephophobia);
  • soft toys (anthophobia);
  • starry sky (astraphobia);
  • wind instruments (aulophobia);
  • nudity (hymnophobia).

The names of the phobias from this list are not at the hearing. These fears are quite rare, but because of their "heightened" strangeness, they cause a person a lot of anger and worry. For example, it is quite difficult to explain to the household that they are not ready to find a job, and not with mundane laziness, but with a real phobia.

Star List: Famous People Phobias

Famous people are not inferior to an ordinary person in their tendencies towards various disorders. And it is not uncommon for them to have phobias:

  1. Scarlett Johansson is afraid of birds. She says that she developed a phobia while filming the picture "We bought a zoo". Unleashed peacocks frightened the actress, and since then she has been terrified of all the big winged ones.
  2. Billy Bob Thornton doesn't like antique chairs. He not only prefers not to sit on such furniture, but also not to be around. Thornton seeks the cause of the phobia in his past life.
  3. Oprah Winfrey can't stand chewing gum. Fear arose in childhood when my grandmother scared the future host with horror stories about school penalties for chewing gum. The impressions were so strong that after years the phobia remains with Oprah.
  4. Orlando Bloom is terrified of pigs. And all because of the story that happened on the set of the film "Kingdom of Heaven". A giant pig escaped from the aviary and pursued the actor. Since then, Bloom has preferred to stay away from pigs.
  5. Matthew McConaughey fears revolving doors. He says he is terribly afraid to go through them, which is why he experiences a lot of inconvenience.
  6. Nicole Kidman is appalled by common butterflies. At the same time, the actress is indifferent to mice and cockroaches. Even so, some of the most beautiful insects inspire Kidman in great fear. She talked about the huge gray bloodworm that lives at her gate and does not allow the actress to return home calmly.
  7. Uma Thurman is a famous claustrophobia. Pathological fear developed in her on the set of the second part of "Kill Bill" when the actress was put in a coffin. And now Thurman avoids elevators and confined spaces.

Obviously, celebrities also suffer from phobias and often don't even try to get rid of them.

One can live quite successfully and fruitfully with many pathological fears. If the alarm does not get louder and there are no panic attacks, then the help of a specialist can be dispensed with. However, the slightest deterioration in the situation should be an occasion to turn to a psychotherapist: active phobic disorders quickly lead to a further deterioration in mental health.

The rhythm of life, the informative and emotional load grows and the human psyche ceases to deal with stress or overload. So there are neuroses. This is a whole group of disorders based on psychological trauma or nervous system overload. Injuries can be single but associated with strong emotions (death of a loved one, divorce) or they can be a repetitive effect of varying intensity (conflicts in the family and at work, responsible work with a heavy workload). Therefore, in a disease such as neurosis, treatment, prevention of this condition are the first signs of the development of the disease - this is information that will be useful to many people.

One type of neurotic condition is obsessive-compulsive anxiety or phobias (phobic disorders). Phobias aren't just fears, although that is how the word is translated. This is a pronounced emotional state, even panic, which develops under the influence of a certain factor and has no clear justification.

Nowadays, living in megacities, minimizing personal space and making personal life available to outsiders are causing one of the phobias to seize an increasing number of people - this is anthropophobia, or fear of people. Anthropophobia is considered a youth disease. Nevertheless, the fear of people is a phobia that occurs among representatives of all age groups of the population.

Types of phobic disorders

One of the most common neuroses is human phobia - a list of explanations includes over three hundred known and described fears that occur in people of different ages, nationalities, and genders. Depending on what phobias are present, they can be divided into types and groups.

Fears and phobias are not the same. Fears are a more common name. According to the theory of G. Kaplan, fears can be productive, which help a person to save his life, and pathological (phobias or fear of panic), which sometimes make life very difficult. Phobias - under what conditions? And on what basis can they be divided? Psychiatrists and psychologists have chosen different criteria for classifying such disorders. The entire variety of disorders of this class can be divided into three main types of phobias:

  1. biological;
  2. existential;
  3. social.

The first category includes fear of natural phenomena, animals, and war. In the second - the horror of freedom, death, fear of space or the future. Social phobias include fear of career breakdown, public relations, bosses, and poverty. Phobias can also arise at the interface of species, for example bio-specific fears (fear of illness).

By the principle of the subject of phobia, fear is distinguished:

  • for yourself;
  • for loved ones.

According to the number of objects:

  • monophobia (an object causes fear);
  • polyphobia (multiple objects cause fear).

Message:

  • external (fear of the crowd);
  • internal (fear of death).

Classification according to the type of occurrence (according to A. Svyadoshch):

  • elementary (resulting from exposure to a strong stressor);
  • cryptogenic (no obvious reasons).

Human phobias can relate to certain events or phenomena (brontophobia - fear of a thunderstorm) or to the fictional consequences of phenomena, actions, events (onanophobia - fear of the consequences of masturbation). The psychiatrist Karvasar divided all pathological fears into 8 groups.

Groups of phobias in Karvasar

Despite the fact that the division into groups is quite arbitrary, you can tell what phobias are, that is, highlighting the main types and grouping the most basic.

In group I. distinguish spatially oriented phobic disorders. For example fear of closed spaces (claustrophobia). And unlike agoraphobia (fear of large open spaces, etc.), this group includes fear of height and depth.

II group represents the fears associated with society. As mentioned above, this group can include anthropophobia and gamophobia (fear of marriage). This also includes apophobia - refusal to touch other people, demophobia - fear of crowds, peyraphobia - fear of public speaking, there may be other fears of this kind, gynecophobia - fear of women, androphobia - fear of men, heterophobia - fear of meeting with a representative of the opposite sex and neophobia - fear of change.

IIIthe group - Includes an extensive list of phobic disorders that are fear of various diseases. This is nosophobia or the fear of getting sick in general, cypridophobia - the fear of becoming infected with sexually transmitted diseases, hermophobia - the fear of "getting" an infectious disease, and many other obsessive phobias.

IVcategory describes the conditions associated with the horror of the attributes of death, the types of death. And before death in general (thanatophobia), taphophobia is the fear of being buried alive. This group also includes fears of saying goodbye to life because of an illness, e.g. B. to die of a stroke or heart attack.

V group - Involves a large group of obsessive fears about the sexual side of life. For example fear of sexual intercourse (coitophobia), fear of kissing (felimaphobia), fear of sexual harassment (agraphobia), intimophobia - fear of first sexual contact. This group also includes other fears related to both normal manifestations of intimacy and perversions, including fear of such (paraphobia).

VI group combines fears related to the fear of causing harm to other people.

In group VII so-called contrasting fears are included. The group got its name because it brings together the types of phobias based on the fear of standing out from society. This can be a fear of violating religious principles (sin), moral standards, etc.

VIII group - these are indeed the most incomprehensible fears - this is fear of fear itself or phobophobia.

There are many different phobias, all fears cannot be counted, so let's focus on the most common.

The most famous phobias

Some of the most common concerns concern living organisms: animals (zoophobia), insects (insectophobia), and reptiles (herpetophobia).

Fear of reptiles and insects are phobias that are considered a special case of zoophobic disorders. Fear can cause sharks (galeophobia), dogs (cinema phobia). The fear of arachnophobia is widespread and is known as arachnophobia. Some “popular” fears are ophiodiophobia (fear of snakes) and musophobia (fear of gray human companions - mice).

When broken down by group membership, this article did not indicate a large number of fears of any kind. For example, if a person is afraid of heights - what do you call such a phobia? This disorder is called acrophobia. There are people who are pathologically afraid to take responsibility. This condition is known as hypheniophobia. If a person is ruled by fear of the dark - what is the name of the phobia? It's not a phobia.

Phobias - The list of the most common phobias varies by source. Some believe that the most common phobia is fear of something. According to other sources, this is arachnophobia, then in descending order:

  • xenophobia (fear of everything else, a stranger, accompanied by anger);
  • thanatophobia;
  • necophobia;
  • acrophobia;
  • claustrophobia;
  • aerophobia (fear of flying);
  • algophobia (fear of pain).

Slightly less common but more common are pest control (fear of infection), agoraphobia, hemophobia (fear of blood), autophobia (fear of loneliness), amaxophobia (fear of traveling in a vehicle when it needs to be checked), dental phobia ( Fear of dental treatment). .

When a person overcomes panic fear, they turn to a therapist. When a person suffers from monophobia, they can adapt to reality and try to banish the stressor from their life. In this case, however, the expert's advice does no harm. Next, we describe all of a person's phobias - a list of explanations for each specific phobia.

Ways to Treat Phobias

For such neuroses, treatment is mainly a psychological correction. Various methods are used, from auto training to yoga to gestalt psychology. Modern therapy for obsessive-compulsive states involves the use of modern techniques such as CBT and CBT. Therapy of phobia requires a long time and an individual approach to each patient. In severe cases, when phobias cause panic attacks, the use of medication is recommended.

  1. Phobias and fears complicated by panic attacks or depression are treated with benzadiazepines (Diazepam, Elenium). Long-term use of such funds is not recommended due to the available side effects.
  2. To treat more smoothed forms of phobias, milder anxiolytics (meprobamate) and agents that affect the absorption of serotonin (Aurox) are used.

For the neurosis, the treatment is a lengthy and not particularly pleasant procedure, which is why prevention is so important. Unfortunately, most fears are rooted in childhood. This means that their development is influenced not by the person themselves, but by their family and those around them.

Neurosis: treating phobias with drugs (Dizepam, Elenium, Fluoxetine)

In order not to create fear in your children, you have to scare them less with real characters and fantastic "beeches". Try not to scare them with your own reaction to animals (spiders, snakes, mice). Don't throw a scared baby in the room for psyche relief.

In adulthood, adequate rest, a good night's sleep, minimizing computer games, and giving preference to outdoor activities over television programs (horror films, criminal programs) all help to avoid the development of neurotic states. If there are no contraindications, instead of regular black tea, you can include herbal teas with calming effects (with mint and lemon balm, hawthorn and feverfew) in your diet.

Video: treatment of neuroses, constant fears replace each other (causes of fears)

To phobiasoften involve some manifestation fear, fear, fear, fear. This understanding is determined by the characteristics of anxiety disorders - their symptoms are so far-reaching that almost anyone can find some form of obsessive fear.

But how exactly can one distinguish the presence of a phobia from the common forms of anxiety and fear?

What's this?

The existence of mankind has always been linked to the need to protect itself from possible dangers, because nature itself has created a protective mechanism in us that enables us to warn in good time of a danger to life or health.

We speak of feelings of fear and anxiety that characterize the emotional sphere of a person in the moment of real danger.

Highlighted is irrational, fear of anxiety disorders usually has no reason - it is not necessary for survival or risk and threat prevention. At the same time, the danger in the human mind multiplies, and even harmless phenomena (objects, events) can be raised to the rank of threat to life.

Appropriateness, rationality, and logic are absent, as are other cognitive characteristics of the thought process. The experiences are so compelling that a person can perform the most stupid and inexplicable acts.

That explains the most strange phobiasOccurrence in people: fear of baldness - peladophobia or beard - pogonophobia, mirrors - esoptrophobia, aquariums - ichthyolacophobia, antiques - anticophobia, etc.

In addition, people cannot pinpoint exactly what is directly causing such a strong fear.

How the body reacts to phobia

The body's physiological response to phobia involves preparing all systems to withstand a possible threat. The following occurs:

  • the heart beats faster, blood pressure rises, the supply of oxygen to tissues becomes more intense, which can lead to complications in the cardiovascular system (heart attack, myocardial infarction);
  • the pupils of the eyes dilate, which indicates a stressful condition;
  • the intensity of the inspiratory-expiratory cycles increases, the saturation of the lungs with oxygen increases, which can trigger hyperventilation and, as a result, panic.
  • adrenal glands start producing stress hormone (cortisol) intensely, which affects the condition of the immune system, muscles and bone tissue.
  • body cooling mechanisms are activated - sweating is more intense;
  • digestive organs are disturbed.

Types of human phobias

By analyzing the different types of phobias, experts develop their own and very different classifications. There is a single international classification of phobias, including at least one 3 large groups:

  • agoraphobia;
  • social;
  • specific.

Space is in danger

Agoraphobiaoriginally associated with "fear of the marketplace" - the meaning of the word in a literal translation.

A modern understanding of this type of uncontrolled fear includes a number of phenomena: open or, conversely, closed space, large crowds, any public place, travel, the inability to get to a safe place immediately (for example, home).

Hostile environment

Excessive anxiety and fear in response to a possible negative evaluation of the social environment, ridicule, criticism and condemnation of people - all this is a possible basis for manifestation social Phobia.

Sociophobes have difficulty adapting to life in society, establishing interactions with people: when they get to know each other, communicate by telephone and in person with visitors and their superiors and, if necessary, act in the presence of others (eat, write, etc.), speak publicly.

This type also includes Fear of work. What is called a phobia in this case, not everyone will remember, but many have experienced it ergophobia Get a new job if necessary, perform overly complicated and time-consuming post-injury tasks when you have unfavorable relationships with the team.

Separate and so varied fears

Specific or isolatedPhobias describe fears associated with certain situations, phenomena, or objects. Panic attacks of fear can cause animals and insects, natural phenomena and physical objects (thunderstorms, strong winds, water, loud noise, altitude).

Human Phobias: Explanation List

The American Medical Terminology Dictionary defines 400 types of phobias.

The most common list contains around 50 items. Here are some of them:

  1. Fear of illness ( nosophobia) Persistent and inevitable, a person has a terrible fear of getting sick - one, less often several diseases. Sometimes this leads to complete inactivity - in order not to endanger yourself, all attempts to interact with the outside world are suppressed.
  2. Fear of death ( thanatophobia). It is somewhat related to the previous phobia, but it is specific from the standpoint of a specific object of fear. Everyone is shy of death, but for the thanatophobe that fear is constant and not associated with the real risk of moving to another world. The individual experiences the strongest panic attacks just thinking about the possibility of death.
  3. Fear of germs ( spermophobia) People suffering from this phobia definitely try to avoid an environment with microorganisms - dirt, dust. They wash everything, clean it and fight almost "to the holes".
  4. Fear of heights ( acrophobia) Insufficient awareness of everything related to staying in the foreground. Even at a low altitude, the person becomes numb and excessively tense, his face is covered with his hands. Nausea sets in and becomes very dizzy.
  5. Fear of holes ( tripophobia) Every hole, but rather their accumulation (also in natural objects) is associated with a threat: it can be pulled into holes, you can fall into them, poisonous creatures can lurk there. The discomfort caused by the fear of holes is accompanied by the full spectrum of negative emotions - disgust, extreme hostility.
  6. Fear of the dark ( achluophobia, niecophobia).
    Darkness, combined with surprise and tension, causes horror. Although more likely to be associated with childhood anxiety, nihophobia is present at any age. People with imagination have a greater tendency - they always try to portray a terrible act of what may be hidden in the dark.
  7. Fear of people ( anthropophobia) This form of phobia can be called an extreme manifestation of social anxiety, when even the presence of a person is painfully experienced. A neurotic state occurs with any violation of personal space, especially when in direct contact with a person who is particularly unknown.
  8. Fear of dogs ( cannophobia, kinophobia) Cinophobes, who know that a dog is a philanthropic animal, do not deeply support this view. For them, these animals are a source of fear, increased heartbeat, panic, and a desire to flee without looking back. Regardless of size, appearance and distance from the individual, the dog gives rise to maximum fear.
  9. Fear of snakes ( opidiophobia).
    The snake is not the most pleasant creature because many understand the ophidiophobe. Irrational anxiety and pathological fears about snakes are reflected in the reluctance to even think of places where snakes can live, let alone visit them. Such people deliberately limit their stay in nature and spend the night in tents. Searching for snakes is carried out even at home or at work - this is fraught with particularly severe phobia.
  10. Fear of insects ( entomophobia, hostility to insects) This phobia is similar to the previous one - here all kinds of insects or their individual representatives cause horror. The mere sight of crawling creatures, the sounds they make while moving and flying, are perceived painfully and with emotional intolerance.

Phobia test

The diagnosis of fears is carried out with at least 2 varieties Test methods:

  • personal questionnaires or questionnaires to determine the psycho-emotional state;
  • projective tests.

To first The group includes all tests of the classic version and suggests a general "question-answer scheme" (or "statement - evaluation" by the test persons). The phobia can be judged on the basis of significant personal and situational anxiety. In this case, the Spilberger-Hanin questionnaire is used, which provides an objective assessment of a person's perception of a range of circumstances that are not objectively dangerous, but in the case of a phobia associated with an unequivocal threat.

Information on the severity of phobias is also provided by the Zanga scale (ZARS test), which can be used to determine anxiety disorders, panic attacks or the phobia yourself.

Projective test Techniques designed to work with the subconscious. There is stimulating material for the topic (for example, in the form of pictures, drawings, abstract images) that evoke a number of associations from which a psychologist can conclude that fear and its characteristics exist.

The best known projective technique:

  • rorschach stains, on which a series of ink stains act as a stimulating material - they become an indicator that suppressed fears and fears are "raised" from the subconscious into the conscious sphere (ink stains appear to a person and he "recognizes" something that is to him is familiar from a distance);


  • non-existent animal: the technique is based on the close relationship of a person's psychomotor to his or her internal psychological sensations (emotions); By drawing an animal whose appearance is only determined by their own imagination, the individual demonstrates his own fear on a piece of paper through the muscle tone and fine motor skills of his hands.

treatment

Along with drugexposure psycho correctionwork is one of the methods of overcoming anxiety disorders.

The main focus of phobia psychotherapy is to strengthen the body's ability to adapt to traumatic experiences.

Somehow it goes on construct a new approach react to the frightening reality:


An effective way to gradually master and contain your own phobia - desensitization. An agonizing fear creates a lot of tension in a person's body and mind. If you manage to master the method of voluntary relaxation while experiencing a phobia, a person can reach a state in which the fear gradually subsides rather than allowing them to unconditionally control the consciousness and emotional state.

The emergence and spread of phobias is a phenomenon that is not yet fully understood, although it is clear that this process is encouraged mentally and psychophysiological characteristics Person.

Fatigue, stress (psyche), irrational and negative thinking on the one hand contribute to the development of fear and fear, on the other hand they are an indication and an important resource to find a way out of a situation of uncontrollable fear and victory over it.

We offer you to watch a video about the strangest phobias of people: