What is life like without education

Educational opportunities for everyone

Education - the key to a good life

“School federalism is superfluous. We have to abolish small states, I don't see why we have different Abitur. "from the citizens' dialogue of the BMWi in Magdeburg on July 7, 2015

Education promotes people's orientation and judgment. But education is also a prerequisite for a competitive economy, for good work and a secure income.

The indicator Proportion of people with an upper secondary education shows how many people at least one Completed vocational training or a university entrance qualification to have. This measures the educational success, i.e. the educational level of a society and approximately also the quality of the German educational system.

Anyone who attains university entrance qualification or completes vocational training in Germany today has good chances on the job market. In 2018, around 88 out of 100 people between the ages of 25 and 64 in Germany had at least one of these qualifications. - that is seven people more than the average for the OECD countries. It is also positive that younger women have now caught up with men. The proportion of young women between the ages of 25 and 34 who have completed upper secondary level is just under one and a half percentage points higher than the proportion of young men.

Proportion of people with at least an upper secondary degree, by age group and gender, in 2018

Education is one of the most important Requirements for the integration of immigrant people. Also here is a in the years up to 2018 Catching up process It can be seen that the proportion of migrants who either achieve a university entrance qualification or a university degree increased significantly among the young age groups. Between the ages of 55 and 64, 65 out of 100 people with a migrant background have completed upper secondary education. Among the younger migrants between 25 and 34 years of age, this figure is already 75 out of 100. The gap to people without a migrant background is 55 up to 64-year-olds to 25.5 percentage points, for 25 to 34-year-olds now to 17.4 percentage points. There is still a clear gap to people without a migration background.

Proportion of people with at least an upper secondary degree by age group and migration background, 2018

What is the federal government doing?

According to the Basic Law (Art. 30 GG), education in Germany is primarily a matter for the federal states. The Basic Law has been changed so that the federal government can support the federal states and municipalities with the digital pact for schools in equipping all general and vocational schools. With the School Digital Pact, the federal government is investing 5 billion euros in a modern digital infrastructure. In addition, the federal government supports the federal states and the learners in Germany with a wide range of measures, e.g. the expansion of early childhood education.

Recognize and reduce risks early on

The course for educational success is often set early in life. Missing school or vocational training qualifications lead to poor opportunities on the job market. The citizens also discussed this. Some young people have difficulties starting their education. They have to be promoted in a targeted manner.

"Participation in education must be ensured regardless of income."from the Citizens' Dialogue of the Bertelsmann Foundation in Gütersloh on May 8, 2015

The indicator is used here Risk group of early school leavers. They are between 18 and 24 years old, have at most a secondary school leaving certificate and are no longer in education or training.

Their share has fallen in recent years - from around 13 percent in 2003 to ten percent in 2018. However, young men in Germany, at just under eleven and a half percent, remain somewhat more at risk than young women, with a share of just over nine percent. This brought Germany very close to the 10 percent target of the “EU 2020 strategy for employment and intelligent, sustainable and integrative growth”.

Across Europe, the proportion of early school leavers fell from 16 percent in 2004 to below eleven percent in 2018. Germany is thus below the European average

Development of the share of early school leavers among all persons aged 18 to 24 years by gender

Even among young migrants in Germany there are fewer early school leavers today than there were eleven years ago. In 2005 that was 24 percent of young people with a migration background; in 2018 the proportion was just under 18 percent.

Despite this improvement, there is still a clear gap to people without a migration background. In order to Education as the engine of integration works, special efforts are necessary - not least because in 2015 and 2016 many refugees with little formal education sought protection in Germany.

Development of the share of early school leavers among all persons between the ages of 18 and 24 according to migration background

What is the federal government doing?

Children, adolescents and young adults in need receive benefits from the education and participation package and are supported with programs such as "Culture makes you strong" or "Alliances for education". To promote schools in disadvantaged social situations, a federal-state initiative "School makes you strong" was initiated.

Fair opportunities on the educational path

Educational equity was one of the topics that were discussed particularly intensively in the Citizens' Dialogue. The people agreed: When it comes to grades and degrees, it should be fair. Every child should have as good a chance as possible on their educational path. Studies show, however, that in Germany it is not only performance but also origin that determines the educational success of children. The relationship between the educational level of parents and that of their children is very pronounced in Germany.

"It is important to me that every child in Germany, regardless of their social origin, has the opportunity to pursue educational paths that help to realize their own potential [...]."from an online answer dated August 22, 2015

The indicator Educational mobility between parents and children compare the highest general education Parents' school-leaving certificate with that of their children.

The Relationship between the level of education of parents and that of their children is very pronounced in Germany. More than seven out of ten children, of whom at least one parent has a high school diploma or a technical college entrance qualification, also achieve this qualification. The proportion of young people who leave the education system without a formal qualification is very low in these families at less than three percent.

On the other hand, the figures also show that many children make it through the German school system. Upward educational mobility is greatest in educationally disadvantaged families in which none of the parents have a school leaving certificate: a good 80 percent of children take qualified qualifications, around 24 percent even get the advanced technical college entrance qualification or the Abitur. If you look back over the past 20 years, you can see one clearly positive development. In 2017, almost one in four children born to parents who did not graduate from school achieved higher education entrance qualifications. Twenty years earlier it was only about every 13th child.

There remains a need for further action. Because every fifth child from an educationally disadvantaged home still leaves school without a qualification and thus has poorer prospects for a good job, a satisfactory income, and in short a good life.

Educational mobility between parents and children 2017
Educational mobility between parents and children 1995

The picture is mixed for families with a migration background. In families in which at least one parent has a higher education entrance qualification, there is an above-average number of children who first complete a secondary or secondary school qualification or leave school without a qualification. On the other hand, it is encouraging that an above-average number of children with a migration background, whose parents have no school-leaving qualification, make the leap to a secondary school qualification or even to a technical college or university entrance qualification. It is therefore of high priority to further dismantle the relationship between origin and educational success.

Educational mobility between parents and children in families with a migration background, 2017

A comprehensive picture of educational mobility only emerges when looking at the entire educational process of a young person. In addition to general school leaving qualifications, professional and academic qualifications should also be included. This is particularly important in order to reflect the internationally recognized system of dual training and its essential contribution to low youth unemployment and opening up opportunities for the young generation.

What is the federal government doing?

With the BAföG, the federal government ensures that young people can afford a good education, regardless of their parents' income. The federal government has financed BAföG alone since 2015. Students and trainees have been receiving higher funding since January 1, 2019. The advancement BAföG will be expanded with better financial support. With the minimum training allowance, trainees will receive at least 515 euros per month from 2020. This will increase to at least 585 in the following years.

New perspectives through further training

Education does not end with school, training or studies. More and more people want to learn afterwards - for their job, but also to develop personally. The participants in the dialogue assessed the meaning and purpose from their own experience professional development mostly positive.

"I think the greatest opportunity is lifelong learning - especially when it comes to digitization."from the citizens' dialogue of the BMWi in Magdeburg on July 7, 2015

The indicator Participation in further training shows the proportion of 18 to 64 year oldswho participated in a operational, an individually job-related or non-job-related further education took part.

Participation in further training according to age groups in 2007 and 2018

In 2018, this applied to more than half, around 54 percent, of 18 to 64 year olds. In 2007 only 43 percent took part in further training. The increase occurred across all age groups. The increase was particularly pronounced among 55 to 64 year olds with 20 percentage points. Lifelong learning is more important than ever today in view of technological progress and an aging society. The further training activities of 65 to 69 year olds, who were surveyed for the first time in 2016, also bear witness to this. In 2018, 28 percent of this group received further training, mainly in the area of ​​non-job-related further training.

Companies are the most important place for further training in Germany. In 2018, 72 percent of the further training activities recorded took place here. Ten percent of the further training courses are individually job-related, 18 percent are not job-related. The focus of the further training activities differ according to the type of further training. In the case of company and job-related further training, the topics predominate Economy, work, law as Nature, technology and computers, it is in the case of non-job-related further training Language, culture and politics.

Topic structure of the various forms of further training in 2018

What is the federal government doing?

The national further training strategy supports all employees in maintaining and adapting their qualifications and skills in the changing world of work. With a bundle of tried and tested and new measures, the skilled labor base in Germany will be strengthened and more people will be able to participate in digital change. Further training is supported by tax advantages. Further training services by the employer, which serve to improve the employability of employees, are tax-free from 2002.