Is Ubuntu more secure than ChromeOS

How to Install Ubuntu Linux on Any Chromebook Model Without Replacing Chrome OS (Crouton)

I have a 2014 HP Chromebook G4 that does not have official Linux (Crostini) support.
I thought some of you might be interested, so this article provides step by step instructions for installing Ubuntu on any Chrombook model, using Crouton. There are also a couple of tweaks / tips and removal instructions.,
Crouton or Chromium OS Universal Chroot Environment, makes it easy to install Ubuntu or Debian in a chroot environment on Chromebooks, no matter the Chromebook model or architecture. With Crouton, you'll continue to use Chrome OS, but you can easily switch between Ubuntu and Chrome OS if necessary.
Compared to the Crostini solution for Chrome OS offered by Google, Crouton has broader device compatibility, and it allows direct hardware access. Also, compared to virtualization, Crouton doesn't have a speed penalty as it runs natively., On the other hand, Crostini is an official project and doesn't require developer mode (which is required to be able to install Ubuntu or Debian on a Chromebook using Crouton). Since your Chromebook is running in verified mode, it also means Crostini is more secure.

Install Ubuntu on a Chromebook with Crouton

Switching your Chromebook to developer mode is unsafe! Crouton supports encryption, but as the Crouton Wiki page mentions, "Encryption is only as strong as the quality of your passphrase".
Before proceeding:

  • Back up your data., Google backs up your passwords, browser extensions, etc., but you may want to back up the files that you have saved in your Downloads folder.
  • You may want to create a recovery image for Chrome OS by installing the Chromebook Recovery Utility extension. You will need a 4 GB or larger USB flash drive or SD card.

1. Put your Chromebook in developer mode.
Installing Ubuntu on your Chromebook with Crouton requires putting the Chromebook in developer mode.
Enabling Developer Mode may vary depending on the Chromebook model you're using, you can find out the instructions on how to switch your Chromebook to Developer Mode by visiting this page, clicking your Chromebook model, and then following the instructions. After what I've seen these are the instructions for most models: Enter recovery mode by pressing the buttons

Hold down and () and press the key. After typing Recovery, press (no information about it on the screen - you need to know this to use it), it will ask you to confirm and then reboot into developer mode.
This can take a while!
From now on, you will have to press or wait 30 seconds every time your Chromebook boots up to continue. Do not press the key as it will be reset!
2. Download crouton.
Go to the Crouton GitHub project page and click the goo.gl link at the top of the page to download the latest version of Crouton. This is a direct link to the latest crouton download (it is subject to change). Leave the downloaded file in the Downloads folder.
3., Install Ubuntu

Now it's time to install Ubuntu on your Chromebook. To do this, open the Crosh shell by pressing. This should open a terminal-like tab. Enter:

Next, install the Crouton executable:

You can type the following command to display the Crouton help text:

To install Ubuntu 16., RL handling between Chrome OS and Linux (requires the installation of the Crouton Integration Chrome extension)

  • Keyboard: adds support for Chromebook keyboard special keys
  • Audio: adds support for audio playback through Chromium OS audio system
  • xfce: the Xfce desktop environment
  • Xfce Desktop runs on a Chromebook (via Crouton)

    You can see all of the available destinations (which are not just desktop environments, but can also be predefined package lists, such as for touchscreen gesture assistance, etc.) by running:

    Crouton can also install e17, Gnome, KDE, LXDE, and Unity desktops. You can also specify multiple destinations by separating them with a comma.
    You can also install the target to run Ubuntu in a Chrome OS tab or window (unaccelerated). This requires the Crouton Integration Chrome extension to be installed. You can find a screenshot of this in the article above.
    While Crouton installs Ubuntu 16.04 by default, you can specify a different Ubuntu version (either older, like 14th, 04 - or newer like Ubuntu 18.04 -) and even Debian or Kali Linux. To change the installed Ubuntu (or Debian / Kali) version, hang

    to the installation command. For example, to install Ubuntu 18.04 Bionic Beaver instead of 16., 04 Xenial Xerus, the command to install Ubuntu on your Chromebook will be:

    You can see all of the available Ubuntu, Debian, and Kali releases that you can install on a Chromebook, use this command:

    However, some versions are not officially supported, but they may work. This includes Ubuntu 18.04 Bionic Beaver !,

    How to use Ubuntu on a Chromebook with Crouton installed

    To start Ubuntu (with Xfce desktop environment) on your Chromebook, press to open a Crosh shell, type:

    You will be prompted for your password and encryption password, and Ubuntu will start.
    The command used to start it varies with the desktop environment you have installed and is displayed after the installation is complete. So if you have KDE installed, use etc.,
    Switch between Chrome OS and Ubuntu with and. This is a great way to switch between Ubuntu and Chrome OS without leaving Ubuntu.
    To exit Ubuntu, log out of the menu present on the top.

    A few tweaks for your new Ubuntu (Xfce) desktop on a Chromebook

    1. By default, there is no graphical tool installed to find and install new applications., You can install the Ubuntu / Gnome software application by opening a terminal on your Ubuntu desktop running Chrome OS and entering the following command:

    Normally you can now start the "Software" application via the application menu (System -> Software). However, if you launch the software application from the menu, you will not be able to install packages and it will show an error that you do not have permissions to install packages and I have not found a way to fix it. However, there is a workaround that can be used. Instead of launching Gnome / Ubuntu software from the menu, you can launch it as follows:

    • In Ubuntu 16.04 Xenial Xerus (standard Crouton Ubuntu version):
    • In Ubuntu 18.04 Bionic Beaver (and newer), gksu is not available, so start it instead:

    If you still can't install applications using the software app, please log out (and make sure you don't enable saving your current session on the Xfce logout screen) and try again, or try end all gnome software instances running in the background and try to install some software again.
    You will only be able to install periodic (DEB) packages with Gnome software. Installing Snap packages doesn't seem to work, or at least I couldn't find a way to get it to work. Installing Snap packages doesn't use an installation method that you can try-with Ubuntu software or from the command line.
    2., You may want to add third-party PPA repositories that you can find in many online guides on installing various software that are not directly available in Ubuntu. However, this command doesn't work by default when installing Ubuntu with Crouton on a Chromebook, so to enable the add-apt-repository command you'll need to install a package named. Open up a terminal on your Ubuntu desktop and use this command to install it:

    3. The default crouton setup for Xfce can be a little ... ugly. To fix this, go to the and change:

    • tab: change the icon theme
    • tab: Change the subject too

    This is what the window frames and icons will look like after this change:

    You can also try the other themes to see which you like the most or install more themes.,

    How to uninstall Ubuntu (installed with Crouton) from Chromebook

    If you want to completely remove Crouton, you can restart your Chromebook and press while you boot to turn on the OS Checker. This will reset the Chromebook / Chrome OS.
    You can also restore your original Chrome OS installation if you backed it up using the Chromebook Recovery Utility.,
    If you just want to delete the chroot that was created when you installed Ubuntu with Crouton, quit Ubuntu (by logging out) and press in Chrome OS, then enter:

    Next, remove Ubuntu using this command:

    Replace with the code name of the Ubuntu version. By default, this is. If you've installed Ubuntu 18., 04 Bionic Beaver, its code name is
    If you don't know the Ubuntu version / chroot name, you can use this command to get a list of chroot names: