What are resulting and equilibrating forces

Material behavior (bone and implant materials) under mechanical stress

Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery pp 29-47 | Cite as


As early as 1892, Julius Wolff stated that living bones always adjust their outer shape, their inner architecture and their strength to the acting mechanical stress. His law of Transformation of the bones (Wolff 1892) was originally justified by observing the "mathematically well-motivated transformation of both the inner architecture and the outer shape of the bones", which occurred as a result of pathological disorders of the use of the bone (fractures, muscle dysfunction, etc.). But he also reported deliberately brought about changes in the static stress on the bones that were not caused by pathological conditions, which led to changes in the shape and architecture of the bone.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1st Consultant in Orthopedic BiomechanicsWinterthur