Were muscled Greek and Roman warriors



1 CONTENTS 5 FOREWORD ... 8 INTRODUCTION THE HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EQUID DRIVING AND RIDING IN ANCIENT CHARIOT CULTURES AND KIKKULI TEXT The transition from driving to riding The horse in the daily life of the Greeks and in Greek mythology The Olympic thought The Greek horse connoisseur Simon von Athens and Xenophon The importance of riding among the Romans THE FIRST MILLENNIUM AFTER CHRIST The Teutons and the handling of horses The development of different riding styles and the beginning of tournaments THE CENTURY The appearance and use of horses The development of riding in the context of the Crusades and knight tournaments THE CENTURY The emergence of binding tournament rules The increasing inappropriateness of heavy horses and the first writings on the training of horses THE 16TH CENTURY The development of riding under the influence of the Renaissance Important riding masters of the 16th century THE 17th CENTURY The Enlightenment in the P Horse training: Riding as a courtly pastime and warlike necessity The development of various cavalry tactics Important riding masters of the 17th century THE 18th CENTURY Guérinière and the development of the classical art of riding as a systematic gymnastic exercise of the horse ... 55

2 6 CONTENTS 8.2 The differences of opinion between academic and military training The Spanish Riding School in Vienna The Cadre Noir in Saumur On the development of the Prussian cavalry Dangers of hunting and the increasing importance of circus riding Important riding masters of the 18th century THE 19th CENTURY The gradual displacement of the horse from traffic and from agriculture Classical horsemanship in conflict between doctrines and riding disciplines The increasing importance of cavalry in the training of rider and horse Riding instructions and riding regulations Instructors of military institutes in the 19th century The Austrian cavalry Important French civilians and cavalrymen of the 19th century Others pioneering instructors of the 19th century THE 20th CENTURY OF The change in use of the horse The beginning of tournament sport The importance of cavalry in the first half of the 20th century The cavalry school Ha nnover (KS) The Army Service Regulations from 1912 (H.Dv.12) and the edition of Major Riding Masters in the first half of the 20th century. THE DEVELOPMENT AFTER the rebuilding of riding and the connection of dressage to the top of the world Successful instructors and competition riders in the 50s and 60s leisure riding and alternative riding styles in the second half of the 20th century development tendencies and tournament successes in the 60s to 80s development tendencies in horse training and in the requirements of tournaments, tournament successes and international judging procedures in the 60s to 80s On the development of the World Cup freestyle test The dressage horse test as a guarantee of the preservation of the classical art of riding The discussions on the roll cure, hyperflexion and the LDR method as well as the tournament successes up to


4 14 Driving and riding in antiquity CHAPTER 2 15 K A P I T E L 2 Driving and riding in antiquity 2.1 Chariot cultures and Kikkuli texts Before our ancestors could even handle or even work with the horse, it first had to be domesticated. The horses were domesticated relatively late compared to other animals. Scientists assume that the wolf as a forerunner of the dog around v.chr. was domesticated, the sheep around 9000 BC, the pig around 6500 BC, the reindeer around BC, the Asiatic wild ass around 6000 BC, the cattle around BC and the horse around v.chr. The horse was initially kept both as a supplier of meat, milk, fur, leather and implements or jewelry made of bones and as a sacrificial animal. In some cultures the horse was considered a totem animal: By eating the totem animal, one hoped for divine power and the animal's abilities. This cult act proves that the horse held a special position among animals in early antiquity. Thousands of years later after Christianization, eating horse meat was a pagan sacrifice from a Christian point of view and was considered a clear sign of adherence to paganism. This is why the Church designated the horse meat as unclean and inferior in BC. INVENTION OF THE WHEEL The horses were clamped in front of ceremonial or cult floats initially only on festive occasions. The onager was used as the real workhorse. The horses pulled the loads with their necks, which had to be strongly muscled. The tension belt pressed on the windpipe so that the horses could only pull up to 500 kg. Slaves were used to move heavy loads. The tension with collar, plank harness, pull ropes, log and handle did not appear in the pictorial representations until around AD 1000. on. Around 2000 B.C. The horse replaced the onager as a workhorse. The horse pulled less loads, but was much faster. Fig. 9: Representation of a pair of horses, 13th century BC. DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRIDLE IN EARLY ANTIQUITY First a simple bast loop was tied around the mouth, later a piece of wood or horn was placed across the mouth. In the Bronze Age (second half of the 3rd and first half of the 1st millennium BC) the metal snaffle replaced the wooden or horn snaffle BC. CHARIOT CULTURES AND THE FIRST GREAT POPULAR MIGRATION The chariots proved to be an unbeatable weapon and the less advanced tribes were simply overrun. With the help of the chariots through the Indo-Europeans, whose origins lay in the Kyrgyz steppes of western Kazakhstan, the first migration of peoples in human history took place. The Aryans invaded Persia, Iran and Egypt. The Ithacians came to Italy. The Archaeans and Ionians came to Greece. Several peoples only used their chariots as a means of transport, as a driven infantry. To fight, they left the chariots to fight on foot. The Assyrians drove into battle with four warriors per chariot, each of the inmates having a different task: a driver, a shield-bearer, an archer and a spear thrower. They too left the BC chariot to fight. The Hittites, a tribe from Asia Minor, penetrated as far as Anatolia and founded the capital Hattuscha BC. The Hittites reached Egypt. AROUND 1500 BC The chariot made its way from Egypt to Greece BC. The Egyptian Pharaoh Thutmose III. captured around 924 chariots during the conquest of Megiddo in Syria (1468 BC) and maintained 2000 horses in his army. For the first time the chief of horses or the royal charioteer were mentioned in writings. The importance attached to charioteers and horses is shown by various customs and traditions: Princes conveyed good wishes for charioteers and horses. Among the Scythians and Chinese, when a famous charioteer died, his horse was also killed. King Solomon had spacious stables and practice tracks built for his horses. The head of the charioteer was powdered with gold dust. King Solomon compared his mistress to the beauty of his mares. Fig. 10: First migration from right to side: The Indo-Europeans stormed west with their chariots. Fig. 11: Relief of a charioteer, 6th century BC. Fig. 12: The charioteer, the hero of antiquity

5 42 The 17th Century CHAPTER 7 43 K A P I T E L 7 The 17th Century With the establishment of farm studs, mainly in the 16th and 17th centuries, systematic horse breeding began. Spanish or Neapolitan stallions were particularly preferred for courtly representation. In contrast, there was an extensive importation of Arab horses in England, which formed the basis of the English thoroughbred breed. 7.1 Enlightenment in horse training: Riding as a courtly pastime and warlike necessity In the 17th century horses were not only trained for war purposes; riding also became a courtly pastime and a social event of the highest order. The bourgeoisie took over the stylistic elements of the nobility and thus also the pleasure of riding. In this way, riding became accessible to broader sections of the population as a pleasurable occupation. The highlights of courtly riding were horse ballets, carrousels and quadrilles. As a rule, it was about the fight or competition of certain groups, always in honor of the inviting party. The progenitors of the English thoroughbred are: BYERLY TURK (born 1680, probably Turkmen): The stallion was brought to England by the English Captain Byerly in 1688 after the siege of Buda. DARLY S ARABIAN (born 1702, probably Arab): This stallion was acquired by Thomas Darly in Aleppo in 1704 under the name Manak and brought to England for Queen Anne (). GODOLPHIN ARABIAN (born 1724, probably Berber). The stallion was born in Yemen, passed through many hands undetected and was last bought by the 2nd Earl of Godolphin. Fig. 76: In the 17th century, the aim was to promote the horse's natural predispositions. Fig. 74: Emperor Leopold and his companions at the horse ballet to celebrate the marriage of Henry IV () and Ludwig XIII. () brought the first Carrousels from Italy to France. In 1662, Louis XIV () organized a horse ballet, a carrousel battle of the continents, in which, dressed as a Roman, he led a group of horsemen in the ring. People of high standing were invited as spectators to this spectacle. The cost of this event was so immense that Louis XIV almost got into financial difficulties. The numerically largest horse ballet in history took place in 1667 with 1667 horses and the use of strings and choirs on the occasion of the marriage of Emperor Leopold I () to the Spanish Infanta Margareta Theresia in front of the castle in Vienna. The motto of the spectacle was the battle of the elements. The four elements were represented by eight mounted fighters each. Leopold appeared as a Roman emperor and courbetted in front of his wife's box. The actual horse ballet showed 49 riders in twelve figures, which also consisted of capers and courtesy beds. The rehearsals for this horse ballet are said to have lasted five months. The ladies of the company organized their own carrousels, the Empress Maria Theresia () also took part in a ridden carrousel. In addition, she often took part in so-called women's sled carrousels. The English whole blood became increasingly important, but the term whole blood was mentioned for the first time in 1821 in the second volume of the General Stud Book. The first horse races took place in England in the Middle Ages. But it was not until James I () that horse riding developed into the sport of kings. Charles II () was the first king to send his own horses to the start, which continued as a tradition in the following generations. Fig. 77: Start to Saint Leger in Doncaster Fig. 78: Portrait of Charles I, King of England, Anthony van Dyck () The horse became an expression of the personal power of a ruler and underlined its importance. Fig. 75: Sleigh carrousel with women on horseback In England people rode more frequently in a free gallop, and every kind of gathering was dispensed with. Riding on a bridle became more and more popular. This created an increasing discrepancy between school horses and gallops.

6 120 The development after 1945 CHAPTER Fig. 174: Gustav Menke after his appointment to the school stable of the cavalry school with the reins management 3 to 1 CHAPTER 11 The development after the reconstruction of the riding and the connection of the dressage sport to the world elite After the Second World War and the Dissolution of the cavalry, the development of the cavalry was initially in the hands of a few instructors and private individuals. In the late 1940s and early 1950s there was a revival of numerous urban riding clubs with school horses (hired horses) and full-time riding instructors who had previously served in the cavalry. So Hölzel, Kanehl, Körner, Menke, Meisterknecht and Riehmann became highly recognized club riding instructors, to name just a few. Meisterknecht and Riehmann had made a special name for themselves during the war with a much-noticed pas de deux on horses from the cavalry school, which they also performed after the war. Fig. 173: The former rider Otto Kanehl is congratulated by the Lord Mayor of Krefeld. He became a trainer in Saarbrücken. Although the 10 0 grading scale was already in use internationally, the 0 4 grading system was retained in the national dressage tests. Only when the starting fields got bigger and bigger and one could no longer cope with the 0 4 system did the international grading scale also be adopted in Germany. The individual dressage protocols were dictated by the judges in the running text, often recorded as shorthand notes by the minute-takers and drawn up using a typewriter after the test. Occasionally a typewriter was used directly at the judges' table, which not infrequently led to peeping horses. The Olympic Games in London in 1948 took place without German participation. In London only gentlemen were allowed to compete, that is, no common soldiers, corporals, NCOs or women were allowed to take part. In addition, the Olympic task had been made easier again: there was neither piaffe nor passage. The dressage team from France won, followed by the dressage riders from the USA and Portugal. In the individual standings, the Swiss Hans Moser won ahead of the French André R. Jousseaume and the Swede Gustav Adolf Boltenstern. The actual victorious team from Sweden had to be disqualified because it turned out in retrospect that a rider who started as a Swedish officer was not an officer. From there came the formation of regional commissions for the testing of warm and cold blooded horses in the individual federal states of the former FRG. Predecessors of today's state commissions. In addition, the LPO was developed by Gustav Rau and Eduard Meyer. Fig. 177: In the 1950s, the riders of the Swiss military establishment (EMPFA) were particularly successful. Ill. 175: Otto Lörke (left with Fanal) and Willi Schultheis (right with Chronicler xx) worked together as dressage instructors in Vornholz. Equestrian sport developed into one of the first important sports in Germany, especially in rural regions. One rode primarily for the joy of the horse, for ideal reasons. According to Günter Festerling, it was not appropriate to practice equestrian sport for money, the first international tournament of the post-war period took place in Aachen. In the same year Clemens Freiherr von Nagel-Doornick, who had signed Willi Schultheis and Otto Lörke as dressage instructors, managed to organize a tournament with English participation in Vornholz, Westphalia, which met with broad audience interest. Vornholz became a center of the up and coming tournament sport. At the national tournaments of the late 1940s and early 1950s, the L class was still ridden with the reins 3 to 1. According to Paul Stecken, this was an imperative to protect the younger horses in order to rule out possible locking by hand. In the higher classes, however, the rein guidance was arbitrary. In the mid-1950s, this requirement was lifted at the request of the riders and the reins can be used in any class. The obedience jump was compulsory in all dressage tests. Fig. 176: At the judges' table: Gustav Rau sat in the middle and had everything under control, so to speak, the first auction took place in Verden, organized by Hans-Joachim Köhler, married to Helga Köhler, née Gohde, and the DOKR moved from Dillenburg to Warendorf In 1952 Warendorf became both the seat of the DOKR and the department for performance tests. The FEI decided that women could be admitted to international and official tests, but were not allowed to compete in national competitions, the German FN was accepted into the FEI. In the 1950s and early 1960s, the Swedes and the riders of the Swiss military establishment EMPFA were particularly successful at international events. The Swiss military riders shone in all disciplines. At the Olympic Games in Helsinki in 1952, women were allowed to compete in dressage for the first time. The German team won the bronze medal behind Sweden and Switzerland with Heinz Pollay (Adular, 7th in the individual ranking), Freiin Ida von Nagel (Africa, 10th place) and Fritz Thiedemann (Chronicler xx, 12th place). Clemens Freiherr von Nagel-Doornick had drawn all three horses and had been trained by Otto Lörke. Fig. 178: The German team in Helsinki 1952: Heinz Pollay on Adular, Ida von Nagel on Africa and Fritz Thiedemann on Chronicler xx (from left)

7 164 The development of show jumping by CHAPTER 14 The development of show jumping by The new century began with a bang for the German cavalry show jumpers: In 1902 Caprilli jumped 2.08 m, the German representative, at a tournament in Turin Riding in the previous jumping style, however, remained unsuccessful. Disappointed about the poor performance of the German officers, Kaiser Wilhelm II forbade the German officers to take off again abroad. The new Italian style of jumping continues internationally, the first world record in the high jump of 2.46 ½ m was achieved by the American Dick Donnelly on the horse Heatherbloom.Allegedly, the pair is said to have climbed 2.51 m, but the record was not recognized in Europe. The conflict in which the riders found themselves at the beginning of the century was described very clearly by the cavalry inspector General Brécard in the magazine L Armée moderne, translated into German and published in Sankt Georg of 1933: It must be taken into account that racing and the sport of hunting before the war completely outweighed pure tournament and show jumping. Hunting riding was practiced at that time in all officer corps and in many cities. But those who were ambitious and dared to do something rode races. The racing riders were used to the light seat with short bars and with the upper body leaning far forward and rode over jumps like that. The rider, on the other hand, was still used to keeping his buttocks in the saddle and his upper body as straight as possible. He was thus also in accordance with the old military riding regulations. In tournament sport, one swung back and forth between these two views, depending on whether the practitioner was more inclined to race or to hunt. These contradicting views of the seat were also reflected in the riding regulations of Fig. 253: A kind of safety hunting seat that gave the horses no chance to basculate. In the following years the number of jumping events continued to increase. As a rule, the courses consisted of more or less solid obstacles, the length and design of which were often modeled on horseback riding. Fig. 254: The usual jumping style. Anyone who rode otherwise was considered an outsider at the time. Fig. 250: Heatherbloom after the world record jump over 2.46 ½ m Fig. 251: The German military jumping style The construction of obstacles only gradually became more diverse, with high jumps dominating for a long time. In pure high jump competitions, the riders liked to saddle up experienced, at least ten-year-old hunting horses. According to Major Mario-Franz, quoted by Freiherr von Maercken, the integration of show jumping into the overall military training of the cavalrymen ultimately had the purpose of enhancing the art of riding in the officer corps and subsequently in the teams, and thus the ultimate goal: increasing the cavalry's repartee The development of the jumping style in Germany In Germany, and especially with the cavalry, it was difficult to adopt the Italian style of jumping. Until around 1908, the old German jumping style was used in Germany, which, however, was not developed for tournament purposes, but served to make the recruits saddle-proof for cross-country riding with reins in one hand. Despite the seat with the lower legs stretched forward and the upper body remaining behind the movement of the horse, according to Paul Stecken, the horses jumped willingly due to the urge to move forward, the absolute obedience and the dressage training. Fig. 252: Some of the photos were taken during the Imperial Prize rides between 1908 and Oscar Caminneci, editor of Sankt Georg, campaigned for the modern spring seat in various articles in 1910. Some officers also spoke positively about the new jumping style in this equestrian magazine, so that the military considered banning officers from purchasing St. George's. As a result, the officers' articles appeared in the Sankt Georg under a pseudonym. Despite the reservations of the military, the modern Italian jumping style gained more and more imitators in Germany. Count Erich Holck took his buttocks out of the saddle early on during the jump. This type of riding was considered indecent in cavalry circles, but Ernst Freiherr von Maercken zu Geerath published his book: Jumping Competitions and Terrain Rides. In it, he vividly described the different views on the jumping manner and the seat of the rider at the turn of the century: The fact that the views on this topic are extremely divergent is proven every year by the often diametrically opposed scores of the judges at jumping competitions. One wants to see every obstacle jumped carefully and with the greatest calm, which should also be expressed in the style and speed of the horse ... I come to the opposite direction, which cannot have jumped everything, flying enough and this type of jumping is highest evaluates. Fig. 255: Oscar Caminneci represented the modern Italian jumping style.

8 208 Summary of the development of the training of rider and horse in show jumping CHAPTER Fig. 319: Janne-Friederike Meyer with Lambrasco, Lexington 2010 Carsten-Otto Nagel was promising in the fight for a place in the final of the best four up to the last elimination competition third place. In the elimination competition of the best 30 participants, he suffered a mishap in the triple combination, which meant for him the ungrateful fifth place in the final bill and thus narrowly missed the participation in the title fight. Marcus Ehning reached 16th place in the final bill. Janne-Friederike Meyer and Meredith Michaels Beerbaum did not start in the second lap and ended up in 25th and 30th place in the total. The finals of the top four turned into a demonstration of good riding. The world champion Philippe Le Jeune (Belgium) achieved flawless rides with his own stallion Vigo d Arsouilles and with the horses of his competitors. The silver medal went to Abdullah Al Sharbatly (Saudi Arabia), who had only two throws with his mare Seldana di Campalto. The bronze medal could be handed over to the Canadian Olympic champion Eric Lamaze (a total of two drops and one time error). His stallion Hickstead remained faultless among all four riders. The medalless, ungrateful fourth place went to Rodrigo Pessoa (Brazil) with a total of three shots, where he had to accept one jumping fault with his stallion Rebozo and two with Vigo d Ar souilles. Fig. 320: The victorious jumping team at the 2010 World Equestrian Games: (from left) Carsten-Otto Nagel, Meredith Michaels-Beerbaum, Otto Becker, Marcus Ehning and Janne-Friederike Meyer CHAPTER 17 A summary of the development of the training of rider and horse in show jumping The usefulness of jumping was already recognized in antiquity. The necessity of safely overcoming natural obstacles arose as a result of the intensification of hunting equestrianism. Show jumping as an independent discipline was established at the end of the 19th century and the various forms of jumping style were presented in specialist literature. Show jumping has experienced a rapid boom in the past few decades. Through interesting course designs and at the same time risk-reducing construction measures, show jumping has become safer for riders and horses on the one hand and more popular with the public on the other. The audience also enjoys exciting jumping competitions on television. The specialization in horse breeding provides riders today with horses that are particularly suitable for show jumping. Show jumping competitions and style jumping with standard requirements have enabled solid training at the grassroots level since the 1980s. In order to be successful in show jumping today, special riding skills are an essential prerequisite. These include in particular the balanced seat, the sensitive hand and the trained eye. For a successful jumping horse, a dressage-like gymnastics according to the traditional and proven principles is essential. It must be able to maintain the gallop rhythm in the turns, even with very tight turns in a jump-off. In addition, the horse should react precisely to the soulful aids of the rider, which is essential for the distance tasks set today. At the same time, you have to be able to expect so much self-confidence and initiative from a jumper that it tries to compensate for an oversight by the rider on its own. The zeitgeist has changed compared to previous decades. Manipulation in equestrian sport, of whatever kind, used to happen more to the exclusion of the general public. Today, on the one hand, manipulations are immediately made public and announced worldwide, on the other hand, the public no longer has any understanding for manipulation in equestrian sport.