Is the universe a closed thermodynamic system

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Area of ‚Äč‚ÄčExpertise - General chemistry, thermodynamics

A system here means a thermodynamic system that is to be described using the laws of thermodynamics, e.g. a gas, a phase system or a machine. The part outside the limits of the thermodynamic system is called the environment.

There are three types of thermodynamic systems:

Tab. 1
thermodynamic systems
Relationship with the environmentExamples
open systemExchange of substances and energy with the environment Carrying out a reaction in a reactor with continuous material throughput. Metabolism of living things
closed systemEnergy exchange with the environment, but no material exchange (material exchange without energy exchange is not possible!)Reactions in a closed tube (e.g. autoclave)
closed (isolated) systemneither energy nor material exchange with the environment Carrying out a reaction in a vessel with heat-insulating walls. universe

A thermodynamic system is described by so-called state variables or state variables. State variables are e.g. temperature, pressure, volume, internal energy and entropy.

Learning units in which the term is dealt with