What is the story of Stonehenge 1
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Stonehenge is a circular structure near Amesbury in Wiltshire, England. Stonehenge was built in the Neolithic and probably used until the Bronze Age. It has a moat, which is framed by a megalithic structure made up of several stone circles. The outer stone circle has capstones that bridge pillars. An inner stone arrangement has the shape of a horseshoe and originally consisted of two bearing stones, which had a cap stone and a connecting stone. In the space there are other stone structures and patterns but also several holes in the floor. There are also other megaliths and graves nearby.
For what purpose Stonehenge was built in the Neolithic is not exactly clear. There are different theories, some of which differ greatly and some of which also contradict. Stonehenge could have been a place of worship or a gathering place as well as a religious temple. This is indicated by symbols such as ax symbols and mother goddess. In addition, Stonehenge could also have been a burial site. This is supported by the fact that there are isolated finds and barrows in the immediate vicinity of the building. However, it is also possible that Stonehenge was an astronomical observatory as some lines are aligned after the summer solstice.
The construction of Stonehenge
The construction of Stonehenge took a long time and was divided into three different sections. The moat and the circular earth wall were probably created around 3100 BC. The holes for the posts indicate that at the beginning of the third millennium BC, a structure made of wood was embedded inside the enclosure. The megalithic structure was built between 2500 BC and 2000 BC. However, there are also theories that Stonehenge is significantly older. These date the building to around 3000 BC. According to the current state of research, the beginnings of Stonehenge can date back 11,000 years. The Stonehenge plant was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1986.
Stonehenge is a term from Old English and means "hanging stones". Henge refers to several buildings from the Neolithic Age, which are circular and have a raised enclosure with an inner recess. At Stonehenge, however, the embankment is within the trench, making it an atypical henge.
Stonehenge was built in several phases, the period, according to reliable estimates, lasted more than 2000 years. On the area of Stonehenge, remains of ashes from cremations were found, which must have taken place between 3030 and 2340 BC. They suggest that Stonehenge was a burial site in the past or happened to be built on top of one. In the year 700 AD the area was used again as a burial place. This was probably the last time it was used for this purpose. The grave of a decapitated Anglo-Saxon person is estimated to be at this time.
It is difficult for scientists to correctly date the events in and around Stonehenge, as the quality of previous excavations did not meet today's standards, as the technology available was not as advanced then as it is today. Furthermore, there are very few C14 data that would have made it possible to date, for example, bone finds.
The Stonehenge structure
The heel stone and the position stones from Stonehenge indicate an astronomical background from Stonehenge. These are arranged according to the positions of the summer solstice and the equinox. Hence, it stands to reason that Stonehenge was an observatory.
One of the most important stones of Stonehenge is the altar stone. This is a five meter long block made of green sandstone. The other stones of the inner circle are bluestones. This is a type of basalt that comes from the Preseli Mountains, which are located in the south-west of Wales and are therefore almost 240 kilometers from Stonehenge. The outer circle is made up of sandstone blocks. These are extremely heavy and must have been moved by the Stonehenge builders using sledges. Either 300 men or a few draft animals must have been used for this. However, it is more likely that large numbers of people have pulled and moved these sleds.
In the center, but somewhat apart, is the Stonehenge sacrificial stone. However, scientists still do not agree whether the presumed sacrificial stone was actually a sacrificial stone. Other special features of Stonehenge are the numerous holes and depressions, including the Aubrey holes and the Y and Z holes.
Today Stonehenge consists of 83 monumental stones. Their surfaces were examined with the help of laser scans. 72 engravings, unknown up to that point in time, were discovered and analyzed. These engravings show axes, some of which have a size of more than 40 centimeters, with the exception of a single other engraving, which depicts a dagger. Stonehenge is similar to the "Ring of Brodgar", a stone circle arrangement which is located in the north of Scotland.
Due to its mysterious and imposing appearance as well as its millennia-long history, Stonehenge is a popular motif for tourists and photographers. The building of Stonehenge is also interesting for historians, mainly because its history and the original use have not yet been clearly clarified and thus leave a lot of room for interpretation. The Stonehenge myth has preoccupied people for thousands of years. Whether it's a historic burial site, a temple or an old observatory, Stonehenge will continue to puzzle scientists in the future. Whether the secrets of Stonehenge will ever all be discovered and correctly interpreted by scientists is therefore still completely open today.
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