Is Elke Weiss family Hasidic

"Memorial Book for the Karlsruhe Jews"
Sheva Ivanier

personal data

Schewa Iwanier (Schewa)

Surname:Ivanians
First name:Sheva
different first name:Sheva
Date of birth:May 3, 1939
Place of birth:Frankfurt a.M. (Germany)
Marital status:single
Parents:Aron and Auguste, née Waldmann, I.
Address: unknown, lives in Frankfurt a.M.
Deportation: November 22, 1941 from Frankfurt a.M. to Kaunas (Kowno) (Lithuania)
Date of death:November 25, 1941
Place of death:Kaunas (Kowno) (Lithuania)

biography

Iwanier and Steinmetz families

In memory of Rabbi Naftali Herzel Weiss-Steinmetz and Rachel Steinmetz with Susi, Rosa, Salomon and Pinchas
Samuel Brodmann
Auguste and Schewa Iwanier


Iwanier family
Mordechai Alter Iwanier was born on February 9, 1878 in Wiznitz. His nickname “old age” corresponded to the parents' wish in the Ashkenazi culture to see the next one live into old age after the death of one child.

Wiznitz was a "shtetl" with about 4/5 Jewish population on the right bank of the Czeremosz in northern Bukowina, near the border with Galicia (pronounced in German: "Wischnitz",1 Yiddish וויזשניץ with voiced -zh- as in "Journal") and belonged to Austria-Hungary until the First World War. Romanian in the interwar period, the town was called Vijniţa, was occupied by Soviet Russia in 1940 and by the German Wehrmacht in 1941 and placed under the administration of Romanian fascists. Now the remaining Jewish people were deported to the Romanian Transnistria. In 1944 the place came back to the USSR, today it is called Vyzhnytsa in Ukraine.

Mordechai Alter Iwanier attended elementary school and certainly also a religious school in Wiznitz. He graduated from a textile school and was a volunteer in a cloth shop. In 1898 he opened his first shop in his hometown. The names of his parents are not known. In 1895 three heads of families were named in Wiznitz: “Iwanier, Mendel: Halina cloth trade; Iwanier, Osias: fish trade; Iwanier, Salomon: butcher. "2 The first named may very well be the father. Halina cloth is a coarse wool fabric that poor people used for coats.

The Iwaniers were among the followers of the Wiznitz Hasidim, a strictly orthodox movement that is still alive today in Israel and the USA. Hasidism is a mystical, fun-loving movement that strongly links the Torah with oral traditions. The "table" of a charismatic Rebbe forms the social center.

Yiddish was spoken in the Iwanier house, perhaps also High German. The name Iwanier (emphasized on the first -I-, with its variants Ibner and Ebner) could well be a Russified form of the Middle High German professional name "Ebenære", for example: "Arbitrator" or "Arbitrator". Russia had the northern one in 1769-75 Bucovina was occupied, for example the place name Gartenberg was translated into the well-known Sadagóra.3 Related names are e.g. the Zionist pioneer Dr. Mayer Ebner (1872-1955) from Czernowitz or Mark Ivanir, a contemporary Ukrainian-Israeli-American film actor who appeared in the film “Schindler's List” (1993), among others.

Mordechai Iwanier was a very prominent follower of Rav Yisroel Hager,4 the 3rd Wiznitzer Rebbe, who, according to family tradition, advised him to go to Karlsruhe, and he was friends with his son, Chaim Meir Hager, who was almost the same age, who later became the 4th Wiznitzer Rebbe. This dynasty sees itself in the succession of the founder of Hasidism, the "Ba'al Shem Tov" (1698-1760):

• Ya'akov Koppel Chassid (? -1786) was "Shaliach tzibbur", i.e. prayer leader of the Ba'al Shem Tov. His lecture style, his synagogal singing is cultivated by the Wiznitz Hasidim to this day.5 He is the progenitor of the line.
• His son, Menachem Mendel Hager from Kosov (? 1768-1826) was - as usual after his main work - called "Ahavas Shalom" (love of peace).
• His son, in turn, was Chaim Hager from Kosov (1795-1854), called "Toras Chaim" (Law of Life).
• His son Menachem Mendel Hager from Wiznitz (1820-1884) was called "Tzemach Tzadik" (branch of the righteous) and counts as the 1st Wiznitzer Rebbe.
• His son Boruch Hager (1845-1893) was also called "Imrei Baruch" (blessings) and was the 2nd Wiznitz Rebbe.
• His son Yisroel Hager (1860-1936), called "Ahavas Yisroel" (love for Israel), was the 3rd Wiznitzer Rebbe.
• His son Chaim Meir Hager (1887-1972) was called "Imrei Chaim" (Proverbs of Life) and was the 4th Wiznitzer Rebbe. He survived, left Antwerp for Palestine in 1947 and became head of the Wiznitz Hasidim in Bnei Brak.
• His son Yehoshua Moshe Hager (1917-) is (2008) the current Wiznitzer Rebbe in Bnei Brak.

In 1912 Mordechai Alter Iwanier came to Karlsruhe with his family, where he took over a manufactured goods and equipment store ("Chaim Grösler Nachsteiger") and rented rooms for business and apartments at 10 Kriegsstrasse, corner of Mendelssohnplatz and Kronenstrasse. Around 1915 house number 10 was changed to 68.6
Manufactured goods are fabrics sold by the meter; fittings include curtains, bed and table linen, for example. The cloth trade will have been partly in the shop, partly through small dealers and peddlers.7

Mordechai Iwanier's wife Sossie, who was about the same age,8 born Friedmann (the death certificate is called "Sofie", the tombstone on the Orthodox Jewish cemetery Haid-und-Neu-Straße: סאסי "Ssassie" or "Ssossie"), came from the Galician Zablotów (Austria- Hungary). In the interwar period, the place belonged to the Polish district of Sniatyn, Stanislawow Voivodeship, today as a Zabolotiv to Ukraine. Sossie Friedmann's father is given as Se'ev ha-Cohen, that is, as coming from the priestly line of the "Kohanim".9 Se'ev corresponds to "wolf". A "Kohen" is a direct (male) descendant of the biblical Aaron. Perhaps the Friedmanns were related to Yisroel Friedman, the Ruzhin miracle rabbi, father-in-law of the aforementioned "Tzemach Tzadik" and founder of the Hasidic line of Sadagóra.

The Iwaniers' marriage had children Rachel, Perl, Nathan and Aron. Why did the family leave their old homeland? My thesis is that the following played a role:

• The growing influence of Austro-German Jews in the Bukovinian bourgeoisie, who rejected the Hasidic way of life as a medieval ghetto and the Yiddish vernacular as jargon;
• the Zionist agitation by politically left-wing organizations, which won many young people over to a new, more secular life in Palestine;
• the open or hidden anti-Semitism of the utterly impoverished Ruthenian rural population, who blamed “the Jews” for their desperate situation;
• the hope of being able to live undisturbed as devout Jews in liberal Baden with the support of the neo-orthodox exit community.

The most common alternative would have been to emigrate to the USA, “di goldene medine”.10 The "Alijah" (ascent) to the land of the forefathers, Palestine, or even to Jerusalem was mostly out of the question, since in a strict view the time of exile only ends when the Messiah has come and the Third Temple has been built.

A man like Alter Iwanier always wore a headgear, on the "Schabbes" also the "Schtrejml", a precious fur hat, but hardly any caftans, breeches and slippers as in Bukovina or Galicia. The wife may have worn a headscarf instead of the traditional wig. Since the family belonged to the “Charedim” (those who fear God), according to today's reading: the ultra-Orthodox, comprehensive religious education and instruction was practiced, even if only partially for girls. The "Halacha" with its numerous laws shaped life from an early age. Without any ifs or buts, these people were "Schomrei Shabbat", i.e. strictly observed the Sabbath. Then, for example, no business was done, no fire or lights made, no means of transport used until sunset.

Sossie Iwanier died of tuberculosis on August 24, 1926 in Karlsruhe at the age of 47.12 At that time there was no antibiotic treatment, so this infectious disease was very often fatal.

As of the 1927 address book, Alter Iwanier is referred to as "Adolf" Iwanier. This may have been an attempt to adapt, or it may have been a mistake. He also died on April 26, 1938, at the age of 60. Like his wife before, he was buried in Karlsruhe in the Orthodox Jewish cemetery on Rintheimer Feld (Haid-und-Neu-Straße).

On his tombstone it says:
“A humble Hasid, pure in his actions and straightforward in his ways. The Torah was the aim of his pursuit, and out of awe of Gd all his deeds were wholeheartedly directed to charity and kindness [...] Mordechai old Ivanian ... died in good name at nightfall ... and became buried ... in the month of Nissan in 5698. "12

Rachel, married Stonemason
The oldest child, daughter Rachel Iwanier, was born on February 9, 1906 in Wiznitz.13 Nothing is known about school attendance and training in Karlsruhe. Around 1928 she married Herzel Steinmetz.

The marriage resulted in four children: Sossa (Susi) born on June 11, 1929, Rejse (Rosa) born on July 3, 1931, Salman (Salomon) born on August 20, 1933 and Pinchas (or Pinkas) born on May 22, 1931. June 1937, all in Karlsruhe. The family lived in their parents' house at 68 Kriegsstrasse.

Naftali Herzel Weiss, called Steinmetz, was born on February 2, 190414 Born in Żydaczów, Galicia (Austria-Hungary). In the interwar period, the place belonged to the Polish Stanislawow Voivodeship and is now called Zhydachiv in Ukrainian. At that time it was a small town in East Galicia in the greater Lviv area. Later the family appears in the small, then Hungarian Técső14 moved to Carpathian Ruthenia, because this is called his and his mother's place of origin.16 In Yiddish טעטש (Tetsch), the place on the Tisza, a tributary of the Danube, on the border with Romania, was known for its apple orchards. After 1939 it was called Tačovo in Czechoslovakia and today it belongs to Ukraine as Tyachiv.

Herzel's mother was Nissel Steinmetz, his father Pinchas Weiss.17 Herzel had older brothers, Leibisch and Schraga Feiwel, and older sisters, Malka and Rivka.18 It stands to reason that his parents certainly married rabbinically, but not civilly, so Herzel was officially listed under the family name of his mother.19 His religious name was Raw Naftali ben-Pinchas, his common name was Yiddish / German Herzel Weiss or Steinmetz. Herzel (or "Herschel") as a diminutive of "Hirsch" is traditionally linked to the name Naftali, according to Genesis 49:21:

"Naftali is a fast deer, he gives nice speech".

The Hebrew name is used for documents or the call to read the Torah and is on gravestones. The vernacular name is for everyday life.

The Steinmetz family had among their ancestors the Prague Rabbi Ezekiel Landau (1713-1793), also known as “Noda b'Yehuda”, who was venerated as the “Gaon” (great sage), after his work on Jewish law. The growing Herzel certainly visited a “yeshiva”, perhaps in nearby Máramaros-Sziget.20 There were many “Yeshivot” in the region between Romania and Hungary.

In Karlsruhe, where he must have come in the mid-1920s, Herzel Steinmetz was employed at the “Bejt ha-Midrash” at Adlerstrasse 38, which was mainly visited by “Polish” Jews. This prayer and teaching house was set up on an upper floor of the brothers' house Aron David and Godel Herschlikowitsch (short, gallantry, textile goods wholesalers; see the article in the memorial book about them).21 The doors there, as contemporary Leon Meyer describes it in a report, were always open. The facility was designed by Dr. Abraham Michalski (1889-1961), who was rabbi and chairman of the Israelite Religious Society (“exit community”) in Karl-Friedrich-Strasse from 1923-1939.22
Dr. Michalski appointed the young "Talmid Chacham" (Torah scholar) Herzel Steinmetz as rabbi on "Bejt ha-Midrash" in Adlerstrasse and as "Dayan", i.e. member of the rabbinical court.23

In the “Bejt ha-Midrash”, “a few ten men” gathered in the morning and in the evening for prayer.24 Otherwise "learned", that is, studied in Ashkenazi Hebrew and discussed in the Jewish-German vernacular, e.g. "Mishnayot", Talmudic doctrines. "One hour before Mincha [= midday prayer] there was Raw Steinmetz or Mosche Semmelmann s.A. a Gemara shiur25, in which 20 to 30 adults took part ”, so the participant Leon Meyer reported later.26

In the orthodox “Batei Midrash” mostly only men stayed, while the women had to take care of family work, household chores and business, often married very early and poorly educated. In the Israelitisches Gemeindeblatt 1933, issue B number 12, we find in the event information of the - led by Simon Plachzinski - local group of the religious-Zionist "Misrachi" and its youth organization "Zei're Misrachi":
“Thursday 8:30 pm-10pm: Schiur Schulchan-Aruch. Head: Mr. H. Weiß-Steinmetz. "
Such a weekly lesson dealt with the religious rules of the Halacha for everyday life as explained in the “Shulchan Aruch”.

The address books 1929-1933
27 list Herzel Steinmetz as a rabbi. He apparently left Germany in 1938, perhaps already to the Netherlands, in order to prepare for emigration to Palestine. In any case, Rachel Steinmetz moved with the four children to The Hague in the Netherlands, where they registered on December 20, 1938 at Statenlaan 44. After further moves (July 1, 1939: Scheldestraat 65, July 22, 1940: Scheldestraat 77), they moved to Enschede, Willemstraat 7, in October 1940.28 Herzel Steinmetz was only found in Enschede at this time; as a rabbi he worked in the local hachshara facility of the orthodox association "Agudas Yisroel".29 This organization prepared young people for the aliyah in the sense of a life faithful to the Torah in the Holy Land.

In retaliation for an alleged act of sabotage (the cutting of Wehrmacht cables), the security police of the German occupiers arrested around 100 Jewish men from the Twente region, including 69 from Enschede, along with 50 so-called communists. The men were held in the gymnasium of a local high school and deported to the Austrian Mauthausen concentration camp near Linz on the Danube.
30 Herzel Steinmetz was murdered there on October 7, 1941, shortly before or after all the others.

A memorial plaque on the Orthodox Jewish cemetery in Haid-und-Neu-Strasse commemorates “Rabbi Naftali Herzel Weiss, known as Steinmetz, the son-in-law of the man buried here. He came here from Hungary, the doctrinal wisdom in his hand was rich and extensive. First and foremost was his piety. He gave instructions here in the court of our community [...]. "
31
On April 1, 1942, the widowed mother and her children moved back to The Hague, Scheldestraat 77, presumably to her sister Perl, who lived there. From there, Rachel and the children were deported to the Westerbork transit camp on September 17, 1942.
32 On September 28th her transport went from Westerbork to the east. Their names are documented in the Joodsmonument - the Dutch memorial book for the murdered Jews. On October 1, 1942, i.e. immediately after their arrival, Rachel Steinmetz and the children were murdered in the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp.33 Sossa was 13, Rejse was eleven, Salman was nine and Pinchas was five.

Whenever things went as they did in countless cases, they were driven out of the wagons on the “ramp” with insults and canes, and their luggage was thrown into large piles by inmates; then everyone had to queue up. After their turn, the newcomers were directed by an SS officer or doctor with a stick to the left (for disinfection, into the camp), or to the right to the gas chambers and crematoria, to death. Sometimes depending on the mood of the staff, this was the fate of most mothers with young children as well as older, sick or simply exhausted-looking people.

Perl, m. Brodmann
The second oldest daughter, Perl Iwanier, was born on April 14, 1908 in Wiznitz.
She attended middle school and business school in Karlsruhe and worked in her father's shop as an accountant and saleswoman.
In 1935 Perl emigrated to the Dutch port city of Rotterdam.In the same year she married Samuel (Schmuel) Brodmann, born on August 28, 1910 in Bochnia, Galicia (Austria-Hungary, later: Poland). His parents were David Brodmann and his wife Fanny.

Two children were born in Rotterdam: David, born on March 22, 1936, and Sossie, born on April 18, 1938. Father Samuel was a "Schochet" (butcher) and until 1940, when the German occupiers marched in, owned the father's sausage and canning factory and a kosher restaurant. In September 1940 the family moved to The Hague, Scheldestraat 77. From May 1942, everyone over the age of six had to wear the yellow star ("yellow spot"), which is why little David was also affected. Little is known about the fate of his father, Samuel Brodmann. On August 19, 1942, he was deported with "Transport 21" from the French transit camp Drancy near Paris to Auschwitz-Birkenau, where he perished on September 30 of that year.
34

In the spring of 1943 Perl was arrested with the children in The Hague and deported to Kamp Vught (Brabant) on April 13th. The German occupiers named it "Herzogenbusch Concentration Camp" after the neighboring town of 's-Hertogenbosch. Perl Brodmann had to work hard there. On June 7th, the three were “transported” to the Westerbork transit camp, where they stayed until January 18, 1944, until they were deported to Theresienstadt (Terezín) in German-occupied “Bohemia and Moravia”. They arrived there on January 20th and were housed with other people from Holland in the "Hamburger Kaserne". Seriously ill, Perl Brodmann was, according to a witness, once on a stretcher in the “sluice”, the check-in room for those arriving and departing, but then returned because the upcoming transport was “full”.
35

At the end of the war, Perl and her children were liberated in Térezin and returned to The Hague. David and Sossie Brodmann were among the barely more than 100 children who survived there, out of a total of around 15,000.
36

From December 29, 1945 to February 12, 1946, her mother was in the Ziekenhuis (hospital) in The Hague.
37 The widow later married the war blind Mojzesz Josef Silbiger, who was born in Cracow in 1906. One child, Debora, was born on September 26, 1950. Since her husband was hardly able to work, Perl mainly ran the small textile business. The growing daughter Debora soon helped and wrote the business mail dictated by the father. On August 1, 1963, Perl Silbiger died in The Hague after a long illness.

Daughter Sossie Salomon, née Brodmann, lived in Gateshead near Newcastle, UK, in 1967. Son David Brodman was Chief Rabbi and "Dayan" in Amsterdam from 1963. He made Aliya in 1973 and today (2008) heads an Orthodox study center in Savyon, Israel. For example, he introduces Israeli children to a biblical garden and almost forgotten holiday rituals. Raw David Brodman has appeared for the Jewish-Islamic reconciliation and is a representative of the Israeli Chief Rabbinate.

Nathan
Almost no information is available about Nathan Iwanier. He was born in Wiznitz and died of an illness in his thirties, around 1944, in Davos (Switzerland).
38

Aron
The youngest, Aron Iwanier, was born on November 19, 1911 in Waszkoutz am Czeremosz (Austria-Hungary). The shtetl (Yiddish / German: Waschkowitz) was about 30 km from Wiznitz in northern Bukovina. In the interwar period the place was called Văşcăuţi in Romanian and is now called Vashkivtsi (Ukraine).

After attending school in Karlsruhe, Aron worked in his father's business, which he took over - at least formally - around 1935.
39 The apartment with five rooms on the first floor showed, according to contemporary descriptions, some prosperity with “stately” furniture, large bookcases with Judaica, silver and porcelain.40 The business (wholesaling and retailing of manufactured goods, furnishings, fabrics) was part of the apartment as in the father's time, the house survived the war, but is at this point because of the renovation of the old town in the 1970s and the construction of Fritz-Erler-Straße disappeared.

Around 1937 Aron married Auguste ("Gustel"), née Waldmann from Frankfurt am Main, daughter of the bookseller Selig Wolf Waldmann and his wife Sprinze.

On the night of the pogrom (November 9/10, 1938), Aron Iwanier was taken out of bed by uniformed men and severely abused, and the apartment was ransacked.
41 He was banned from trading in his goods. He was to be arrested on the pretext that he had violated this prohibition. Warned by his wife who worked in the shop, he fled alone to friends in Poland, then after a phone call with his sister Perl in Rotterdam via Cologne to Holland and later on to England.

On May 3, 1939, Schewa (also: Schewe, short for Batschewa), their only child, was born in Frankfurt a.M., where Auguste Iwanier had apparently returned.

On November 22, 1941, mother and daughter were born in the “3. Transport ”from Frankfurt with almost 1,000 people ostensibly“ to Riga ”, thought for a long time, but according to today's knowledge deported to Kaunas / Kowno in Lithuania and shot there by Einsatzkommando 3 of Einsatzgruppe A in Fort XI on the outskirts of the city.
42

In August 1947, the widower with heart disease in England married Beatrix, née Goldkorn, who was born in Berlin on May 4, 1921, and was the daughter of the lawyer Abraham Goldkorn. Mordechaí Montague was born on January 22, 1951, and Nathan Naftalie on April 20, 1953, both in Salford near Manchester. On March 14, 1958, her father Aron died in Salford of his heart disease.

Mordechai Montague studied at the Manchester Talmudical College, and later also printing technology at the Manchester Polytechnic. His brother Nathan Naftalie studied at the same Talmudical College and in Gateshead and became a lawyer.

According to the widespread Jewish custom of naming children after a deceased relative, usually of the penultimate generation, the name of the older brother, Mordechai, refers to the venerable grandfather from Bukovina, on whose tombstone it says:

“May the memory of the righteous be a blessing”.
43^^

(Christoph Kalisch, August 2008)



Remarks:
[1] In 1900: 4738 mostly Jewish citizens according to Meyers Konversationslexikon 5th ed. 1909: http://www.zeno.org/Meyers-1905/A/Wi%C5%BAnitz; jew. Population according to http://www.jewishgen.org (under: Vizhnitsa, Ukraine) and distribution map 1910 see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Bukovina_1910.jpg.
[2] Ippens provincial address book, Wiznitz district (1895), p. 38 see www.literature.at (ALO).
[3] Later part of Chernivtsi; http://bukowina.info/Land.html.
[4] Information from Raw David Brodman, July 15, 2008, email.
[5] http://www.thejewishpress.com/displaycontent_new.cfm?contentid=20792&contentname=My%20Machberes§ionid=14&mode=a&recnum=0
[6] After 1945 renamed Mendelssohnplatz 3, later demolished.
[7] Walter Bingham remembers this in this direction.
[8] The death certificate is called "Sofie", the tombstone has סאסי ("Ssassie" or "Ssossie").
[9] Ze'ev = wolf. Gravestone in the Haid-und-Neu-Strasse orthodox cemetery.
[10] www.ellisisland.org. There is an Iwanier family from Wiznitz who left for New York via Antwerp in 1902: the 30-year-old mother Feige with the children Schimon (9), Elke (8), Mojsche Leib (7), Aron (5) and Schulem ( 2). Father Chaim Iwanier was already there.
[11]. Reparation files GLA 480 / ...
[12] Free, abridged translation.
[13] Identity as daughter of Mordechai I and wife of Herzel S. confirmed by memorial sheets from Yaakov Berger.
[14] Without date in the Polish birth register. Warsaw State Archives (jewishgen.org), February 2, 1904 in Mauthausen's Book of the Dead and then in joodsmonument.nl; in the memorial sheet at yadvashem.org even around 1906.
[15] To Austria-Hungary until 1919. See more at http://newsgroups.derkeiler.com/Archive/Soc/soc.genealogy.jewish/2006-03/msg00467.html or
http://newsgroups.derkeiler.com/Archive/Soc/soc.genealogy.jewish/2006-04/msg00075.html.
[16] Polish State Archives AGAD, Warsaw Fond 300: Zydaczow Birth Register 1887-1904, quoted from jewishgen.org JRI-Poland. Carpathian Ruthenia = Transcarpathian.
[17] http://newsgroups.derkeiler.com/Archive/Soc/soc.genealogy.jewish/2006-03/msg00492.html
and births in Zydaczow, 1877-1904, Agad Archive, Jewish Record Indexing / jewishgen.org as well as on the plaque on the grave of Mordechai Alter Iwanier
[18] See YadvaShem database and jewishgen.org.
[19] Herzl Weiss and Rachel Weiss (sic!) In commemorative sheets, YadVashem, 1957.
[20] Anon .: The Eastern European Jeschivoth. In: Central sheet for the Israelites of Baden and the Palatinate, 2nd year 3.1932, p. 6.
[21] http://users.pandora.be/holocaust.bmb/eng/Herschen.htm and memorial book of the Karlsruhe Jews. Probably not before 1925 see there.
[22] Born 1889 Berlin, died 1961 Israel, http://www.alemannia-judaica.de/rabbiner_baw.htm.
[23] Information from Raw David Brodman, email July 15, 2008.
[24] Leon Meyer, see 8 / StS 13/492 see Werner, Juden in Karlsruhe: 597.
[25] Lesson in the (written) interpretation of the (oral) Mishnah; both together make up the Talmud.
[26] Leon Meyer, op. Cit.
[27] i.e .: as of autumn 1928 to October 1932.
[28] Email Kees Ijspelder, City of The Hague, 25.10.2007
[29] Also: Agudat Israel. Information from Raw David Brodman, email July 15, 2008. - Perhaps in Haimer's Esch house (which was furnished at the beginning of 1938) in the nearby village of Twekkelo?
[30] Van Zuylen, L.F .: Palestinepioneers in Twente 1933-1945. Enschede, undated, pp. 5 and 63.
[31] Free and abridged translation of the plaque installed after the war.
[32] http://www.joodsmonument.nl/listpublish.php?q_mm=steinmetz and information from Herinneringscentrum Kamp Westerbork, José Martin, October 8, 2007 as well as the YadVashem database.
[33] http://www.joodsmonument.nl/person-465736-en.html, http://www.joodsmonument.nl/person-465736-en.html and http://www.bundesarchiv.de/gedenkbuch (only the children there).
“Herzel's wife and four children arrived at the camp on September 17, 1942. Her last address was Scheldestraat 66 [...] in The Hague. Rachel is then already referred to as a widow. [...] Rachel and her children were deported from Westerbork to Auschwitz on September 28, 1942; all of them were murdered on October 1, 1942. I took the data from the files of the Jewish Council and the deportation lists. The file comes from the archive of the Red Cross in The Hague. ”(Communication from José Martin, Museum Kamp Westerbork, 2007)
[34] Cf. http://mms.pegasis.fr/jsp/core/MmsRedirector.jsp?id=76730&type=VICTIM, Le mémorial de la déportation des Juifs de France, Serge and Beate Klarsfeld, Paris 1978 and Yad Vashem database
[35] see reparation files GLA 480 / ...
[36] Rabbi Brodman (Savyon) stated, video
[37] All information from reparation files GLA 480 / ...
[38] This information from Nathan Naftalie Iwanier, mail of January 18, 2008. Serge and Beate Klarsfeld and the memorial book of the Federal Archives name a Nathan Iwanier, businessman, born May 2, 1910 in Wiznitz, who came from Marseille on November 12, 1943 Drancy came and on December 17, 1943 was deported from there to Auschwitz with Transport 63 and died.
[39] The Iwanier company in Karlsruhe went out in 1939, shortly after the father's death.
[40] Illustration from files GLA 480/13894 and others; the house survived the war, but has disappeared at this point due to the renovation of the old town in the 1970s and the construction of the Heinrich Hübsch school
[41] Illustration from files GLA 480/13894 et al.
[42] Alfred B. Gottwaldt and Diana Schulle, The "Deportations of Jews" from the German Reich 1941–1945. An annotated chronology. Wiesbaden 2005, p. 106f.
[43] זצ'ל = acronym, read: "satzál".