How to harvest the garlic bolt
Garlic disease control technology and products
Garlic screwing is the flower bed and inflorescence, which is formed by screwing varieties of garlic in the center of the bulb. As a rule, people refer to the entire bracts of the inflorescences along with the inflorescence, and the flowerbed is called a stalk or peduncle. It is a popular vegetable among consumers because of its delicious taste, abundant diet, and certain health value. The garlic growing areas and garlic stud production in China are relatively broad, mainly concentrated in Shandong, Hebei, Liaoning, Anhui, Jiangsu, and Henan, with Shandong garlic stud storage accounting for about 80% of the land, north is usually from March concentrated until July. Currently, the production technology of garlic studs in the winter greenhouse is not very successful. The market supply for garlic studs in winter and after the spring festival depends mainly on refrigerated storage. There are currently around 1.2 million tons of garlic cold storage and more than 3,000 storage companies in China. Garlic studs are one of the most abundant and longest living vegetables in the vegetable refrigeration industry in China.
The main problems of garlic studs during pre-harvest and post-harvest storage are macular disease, decay, and physiological diseases caused by aging during storage.
Garlic Bolt Macular Disease refers to the yellow spot on the bolt stem and bud of the garlic bolt. This is the size of sesame seeds in the initial stages, scattered around the shape and in severe cases it can be put together into pieces. After three to four months of storage in a cold storage room, the yellow stain will be depressed, very susceptible to microbial infection and will gradually rot and result in serious losses. In recent years, in the garlic stud period, apparent macula were found in garlic stud strips in garlic planting areas, particularly in macula strips which became yellow stripes and seriously deteriorated the quality of the garlic stud. Although the price of garlic bulbs with macular disease was low in 2016, buyers have seldom bought them, greatly affecting farmers' breeding process for planting. There are two opinions about the causes of macular disease: one is that garlic bolt disease is a microbial disease caused by fungi in the field that fungicides can control. The second is that the garlic macular disease belongs to a physiological disease that can easily appear under adverse conditions, and its incidence and planting technology, fertilizer and water management, garlic growing period, garlic stud harvesting period have climate. Obvious relationship. In summary, the main factors that affect the quality of the garlic bladder and the incidence of macular diseases are the pre-harvest planting management factors, which mainly include the following:
(1) Varieties: Good varieties are the basis and decisive conditions for high-quality, high-yield cultivation. The swelling and screwing of garlic bulbs makes high demands on the ecological conditions. Garlic varieties are generally not ecologically adaptable. In production, they are usually adapted to local conditions and select locally known and excellent types of garlic for planting. Cangshan Garlic, a famous variety of garlic in Shandong Province, is commonly referred to as "four or six cloves". The total length of the garlic stud is 60-80cm, the diameter of the stud is 5-6mm, the stud is thick and long, the tissue is fresh and tender, the quality is good, and the garlic stud is durable. The variety has strong growth potential and adaptability and is more resistant to cold. The yield of garlic sticks per MU is 300-500 kg.
(2) Plant management: In Jinan, garlic is generally sown from late September to mid-October. Garlic bulbs are harvested in mid-May of the second year. A month later, garlic is harvested. Now the main problem in the garlic growing areas is continuous harvesting and harvesting. Using the example of Baiqiao Township in Shanghe County in recent years, growing garlic has had better benefits. Garlic farmers are very enthusiastic about planting. Garlic has become the primary crop in the community, and garlic has been planted year after year. leading to a severe incidence of macular diseases in the area.
The main reasons are:
1. Accumulation of Pathogenic Bacteria As the duration of garlic increased through continuous harvest, the number of roots, plant debris, pathogens and eggs in the soil increased. Garlic root excretions and the breakdown of plant residues provided abundant nutrient and host conditions for the pathogens and thus contributed to the reproduction and growth of soil pathogens and pests. Excessive use of mineral fertilizers causes soil hardening, which leads to a decrease in antagonistic bacteria in the soil and provides space for the cultivation of pathogenic bacteria. Long-term use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides reduces beneficial bacteria and leads to resistance to pathogenic bacteria, resulting in widespread pathogenic bacteria and a sharp increase in numbers.
2. Accumulation of self-poisoning substances. Viruses are ubiquitous in garlic, and as the years of planting increase, viruses keep building up. During the growth process, garlic secretes some allelopathic autotoxic substances that are harmful to itself, and they remain in the soil through leaching on the ground, root exudates and the decomposition of debris. With the increasing length of the garlic years, these autotoxic substances accumulated more and more in the soil, whereby the garlic growth itself is inhibited. The growth potential was weakened and the resistance to stress decreased.
3. Nutritional imbalance. Garlic has a certain regularity in terms of the type and proportion of mineral nutrients in the soil, i.e. H. Garlic selectively absorbs soil nutrients. Long-term, continuous cultivation of garlic inevitably leads to a deficiency in one or more nutrient elements in the soil, which without time will lead to a deficiency. In particular, the excessive use of large amounts of elementary fertilizers, which do not take into account the use of fertilizers for medium and trace elements, inevitably leads to a passive ingestion of garlic. As a result, the proportion of various nutrients in the imbalance of the garlic body weakens disease resistance and even causes physiological diseases. When planting, the management of manure and water is unsuitable, the use of nitrogen fertilizer is too high, the basic fertilizer is insufficient, and the disease is serious. High planting density, poor field ventilation and serious diseases.
(3) Climatic conditions: The development of a garlic macular disease depends on the temperature and the severity of the disease depends on the humidity. Generally there is a positive correlation. The higher the temperature, the higher the humidity, the more serious the disease.
(4) Garlic stud harvesting period: The garlic stud harvesting period affects the yield and quality of the garlic studs. An early or late screwing time has a greater impact on the yield, quality and storage of the garlic studs. Early screwing, short and thin garlic bolts, low yield and poor quality as well as garlic bolts that are too tender can lose water and wither during storage. Late screwing not only consumes too many nutrients, but also the contents of the fiber tissue of the garlic stud. Increase tissue aging, reduce the nutritional and edible value of the garlic studs, and during the storage process, the garlic studs yellow, cavity aging, the stud slightly dry yellow and other symptoms. Therefore, garlic bolts should be harvested in a timely and timely manner.
After more than 20 years of experience, we have established a complete and effective system for storing and keeping freshness of the garlic studs after harvest. In recent years, we have made remarkable achievements in research and field trials to control garlic bone macular disease through the use of plant growth regulators, examining the regularity of macular disease during garlic leaf planting and years of production experiments in garlic stud making areas. Effective control of macular products of the garlic screw, the specific methods are as follows:
In the early stages of macular disease (before and after the Qingming Dynasty) and 10 to 15 days later, we used the plant conditioner developed by our company and the spray method in combination with trace elements to control macular disease before the garlic nose was affected has been. The use of safe plant growth regulators, produced by our company at different stages of garlic cultivation, supplemented with medium and trace elements, can significantly improve the immunity of crops and resistance to pathogens, and make it possible to combat macular diseases. After many years of field production experiments, it was found that the soluble solids content in garlic studs increased, the chlorophyll level increased, the stud stripe was soft, the stud stripe was dark green and had no stains and was widely praised by users.
Completely decomposed organic fertilizer or refined organic fertilizer 400-500 kg per mu. 50 kg of N, P and K compound fertilizers were applied together. Fertilization principles: organic fertilizer as the main crop, inorganic fertilizer as a supplement; Long-term fertilizer as the main fertilizer as a supplement; combined use of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers. The amount of basic fertilizer makes up about half of the total amount of fertilizer. The floor with a slightly sticky texture should be applied more appropriately and the floor with a slightly sandy texture should be applied less well.
After five years of basic research, visits and investigations, we have developed a large number of plant growth regulators in the Shanghe District that have played a significant role. However, experts and scholars at home and abroad have a great passion for research into the pathogenesis of macular disease. New ideas are still emerging, so we need to keep studying. After 20 years of technical promotion, the garlic stud has reached anniversary storage at suitable low temperatures, but with the improvement in consumer demands on product quality, new demands have been placed on the storage quality of the garlic stud, such as freshness, nutrient components, pesticide residues, etc. Keeping up with the times, improving our storage technology and promoting the good garlic stud industry. Sexual development. At present, we have started to study new chemical fungicides with high efficiency, such as suspension emulsion, hot spray mist, ethylene control technology and products. Some products have already started production testing and safe and efficient fungicide products will be launched on the market one by one.
Xianfeng No. 1 has achieved excellent results in the prevention and treatment of garlic macular disease.
Fig. 1: Product Xianfeng No. 1
Since 2012, through the study of the regularity of macular diseases in the garlic planting process and years of production experience in the fields of garlic production, our company has conducted the research of the prevention and control of macular diseases in garlic blocks through the use of a compound plant stimulating hormone. The field trials with related products have produced remarkable results. For example, Shanghe Baiqiao, Yueqiao, Qianpu, Jinxiang, Huimin and other growing areas.
Fig. 2: Field trials by employees and farmers
When the garlic is green (before and after the Qingming Dynasty) and 10-15 days later, the use of Xianfeng No. 1 products of our company significantly increase the content of soluble solids and the chlorophyll content of the garlic bolt. The bolt is soft, dark green, and the fresh bolt is good. At the same time, it can promote the development of garlic and increase the yield of fresh garlic.
Figure 3: Pharmacodynamic comparison
As shown above, garlic bolts were not sprayed twice on the left and right. The garlic buttons on the left have a significantly higher green and less macula.
Company Name: Shandong Nutrition Source Food Technology Co., Ltd.
Address: Fuyang Road, Jibei Development Zone, Jinan City, Shandong Province
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